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Author Shima, J.S.; Swearer, S.E.
Title Moonlight enhances growth in larval fish Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Ecology Abbreviated Journal Ecology
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract Moonlight mediates trophic interactions and shapes the evolution of life-history strategies for nocturnal organisms. Reproductive cycles and important life-history transitions for many marine organisms coincide with moon phases, but few studies consider the effects of moonlight on pelagic larvae at sea. We evaluated effects of moonlight on growth of pelagic larvae of a temperate reef fish using 'master chronologies' of larval growth constructed from age-independent daily increment widths recorded in otoliths of 321 individuals. We found that daily growth rates of fish larvae were enhanced by lunar illumination after controlling for the positive influence of temperature and the negative influence of cloud cover. Collectively, these results indicate that moonlight enhances growth rates of larval fish. This pattern is likely the result of moonlight's combined effects on foraging efficiency and suppression of diel migrations of mesopelagic predators, and has the potential to drive evolution of marine life histories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, 3010, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0012-9658 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30422325 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2059
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Author Voigt, C.C.; Rehnig, K.; Lindecke, O.; Petersons, G.
Title Migratory bats are attracted by red light but not by warm-white light: Implications for the protection of nocturnal migrants Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 8 Issue 18 Pages 9353-9361
Keywords Animals
Abstract The replacement of conventional lighting with energy-saving light emitting diodes (LED) is a worldwide trend, yet its consequences for animals and ecosystems are poorly understood. Strictly nocturnal animals such as bats are particularly sensitive to artificial light at night (ALAN). Past studies have shown that bats, in general, respond to ALAN according to the emitted light color and that migratory bats, in particular, exhibit phototaxis in response to green light. As red and white light is frequently used in outdoor lighting, we asked how migratory bats respond to these wavelength spectra. At a major migration corridor, we recorded the presence of migrating bats based on ultrasonic recorders during 10-min light-on/light-off intervals to red or warm-white LED, interspersed with dark controls. When the red LED was switched on, we observed an increase in flight activity for Pipistrellus pygmaeus and a trend for a higher activity for Pipistrellus nathusii. As the higher flight activity of bats was not associated with increased feeding, we rule out the possibility that bats foraged at the red LED light. Instead, bats may have flown toward the red LED light source. When exposed to warm-white LED, general flight activity at the light source did not increase, yet we observed an increased foraging activity directly at the light source compared to the dark control. Our findings highlight a response of migratory bats toward LED light that was dependent on light color. The most parsimonious explanation for the response to red LED is phototaxis and for the response to warm-white LED foraging. Our findings call for caution in the application of red aviation lighting, particularly at wind turbines, as this light color might attract bats, leading eventually to an increased collision risk of migratory bats at wind turbines.
Address Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies Jelgava Latvia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30377506; PMCID:PMC6194273 Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2074
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Author Kehoe, R.C.; Cruse, D.; Sanders, D.; Gaston, K.J.; van Veen, F.J.F.
Title Shifting daylength regimes associated with range shifts alter aphid-parasitoid community dynamics Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 8 Issue 17 Pages 8761-8769
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract With climate change leading to poleward range expansion of species, populations are exposed to new daylength regimes along latitudinal gradients. Daylength is a major factor affecting insect life cycles and activity patterns, so a range shift leading to new daylength regimes is likely to affect population dynamics and species interactions; however, the impact of daylength in isolation on ecological communities has not been studied so far. Here, we tested for the direct and indirect effects of two different daylengths on the dynamics of experimental multitrophic insect communities. We compared the community dynamics under “southern” summer conditions of 14.5-hr daylight to “northern” summer conditions of 22-hr daylight. We show that food web dynamics indeed respond to daylength with one aphid species (Acyrthosiphon pisum) reaching much lower population sizes at the northern daylength regime compared to under southern conditions. In contrast, in the same communities, another aphid species (Megoura viciae) reached higher population densities under northern conditions. This effect at the aphid level was driven by an indirect effect of daylength causing a change in competitive interaction strengths, with the different aphid species being more competitive at different daylength regimes. Additionally, increasing daylength also increased growth rates in M. viciae making it more competitive under summer long days. As such, the shift in daylength affected aphid population sizes by both direct and indirect effects, propagating through species interactions. However, contrary to expectations, parasitoids were not affected by daylength. Our results demonstrate that range expansion of whole communities due to climate change can indeed change interaction strengths between species within ecological communities with consequences for community dynamics. This study provides the first evidence of daylength affecting community dynamics, which could not be predicted from studying single species separately.
Address College of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Exeter Penryn Cornwall UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30271543; PMCID:PMC6157684 Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2100
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Author Owens, A.C.S.; Lewis, S.M.
Title The impact of artificial light at night on nocturnal insects: A review and synthesis Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 8 Issue 22 Pages 11337-11358
Keywords Review; Animals
Abstract In recent decades, advances in lighting technology have precipitated exponential increases in night sky brightness worldwide, raising concerns in the scientific community about the impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on crepuscular and nocturnal biodiversity. Long-term records show that insect abundance has declined significantly over this time, with worrying implications for terrestrial ecosystems. The majority of investigations into the vulnerability of nocturnal insects to artificial light have focused on the flight-to-light behavior exhibited by select insect families. However, ALAN can affect insects in other ways as well. This review proposes five categories of ALAN impact on nocturnal insects, highlighting past research and identifying key knowledge gaps. We conclude with a summary of relevant literature on bioluminescent fireflies, which emphasizes the unique vulnerability of terrestrial light-based communication systems to artificial illumination. Comprehensive understanding of the ecological impacts of ALAN on diverse nocturnal insect taxa will enable researchers to seek out methods whereby fireflies, moths, and other essential members of the nocturnal ecosystem can coexist with humans on an increasingly urbanized planet.
Address Department of Biology Tufts University Medford Massachusetts
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30519447; PMCID:PMC6262936 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2132
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Author Gago-Calderón, A.; Hermoso-Orzáez, M.; De Andres-Diaz, J.; Redrado-Salvatierra, G.
Title Evaluation of Uniformity and Glare Improvement with Low Energy Efficiency Losses in Street Lighting LED Luminaires Using Laser-Sintered Polyamide-Based Diffuse Covers Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Energies Abbreviated Journal Energies
Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages 816
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Energy saving in street lighting is garnering more interest and has become a priority in municipal management. Therefore, LED luminaires are gradually becoming prevalent in our cities. Beyond their energy/economic saving potential, quality in public lighting installations concerns aspects such as uniformity and glare which must be maintained if not improved in any installation renewal project using this technology. The high light intensity generated in a discrete point in LED packages and its directional nature result in significant deficiencies in these last two parameters. To soften these effects, translucent covers are being used as one of the most common solutions with the drawback of significant light intensity losses. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the behavior of LED luminaire’s polyamide-based optical covers manufactured with a laser-sintered process. These are designed to improve glare and uniformity output, to minimize light output reductions, and to be industrially manufactured with no increment of cost for their lighting equipment compared to conventional transparent polycarbonate solutions. A laboratory and field lighting test study has been applied to different covers with the same LED lamp and luminaire to compare the performance of three different solutions built with different polymeric materials and with different light transmission surface textures. The photometric results have been observed and discussed to demonstrate the ability to significantly improve the lighting performance of LED luminaires—illuminance and uniformity levels and discomfort and disability glare indexes— using an improved optic cover.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1996-1073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1844
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