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Author Zeale, M.R.K.; Stone, E.L.; Zeale, E.; Browne, W.J.; Harris, S.; Jones, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Experimentally manipulating light spectra reveals the importance of dark corridors for commuting bats Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The rapid global spread of artificial light at night is causing unprecedented disruption to ecosystems. In otherwise dark environments, street lights restrict the use of major flight routes by some bats, including the threatened lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros, and may disrupt foraging. Using radio tracking, we examined the response of individual female R. hipposideros to experimental street lights placed on hedgerows used as major flight routes. Hedgerows were illuminated on one side over four nights using lights with different emission spectra, while the opposite side of the hedge was not illuminated. Automated bat detectors were used to examine changes in overall bat activity by R. hipposideros and other bat species present. R. hipposideros activity reduced significantly under all light types, including red light, challenging a previously held assumption that red light is safe for bats. Despite this, R. hipposideros rapidly adapted to the presence of lights by switching their flight paths to the dark side of the hedgerow, enabling them to reach foraging sites without restriction. Red light had no effect on the activity of the other species present. Slow-flying Myotis spp. avoided orange, white and green light, while more agile Pipistrellus spp. were significantly more abundant at these light types compared to dark controls, most probably in response to accumulations of insect prey. No effect of any light type was found for Nyctalus or Eptesicus spp. Our findings demonstrate that caution must be used when promoting forms of lighting that are thought to be safe for wildlife before they are tested more widely. We argue that it is essential to preserve dark corridors free from light pollution to mitigate the impacts of artificial light at night on bat activity and movements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30288876 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2021  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Davies, T.W.; Smyth, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 872-882  
  Keywords Commentary; Animals; Plants  
  Abstract The environmental impacts of artificial light at night have been a rapidly growing field of global change science in recent years. Yet, light pollution has not achieved parity with other global change phenomena in the level of concern and interest it receives from the scientific community, government and nongovernmental organizations. This is despite the globally widespread, expanding and changing nature of night-time lighting and the immediacy, severity and phylogenetic breath of its impacts. In this opinion piece, we evidence 10 reasons why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century. Our reasons extend beyond those concerned principally with the environment, to also include impacts on human health, culture and biodiversity conservation more generally. We conclude that the growing use of night-time lighting will continue to raise numerous ecological, human health and cultural issues, but that opportunities exist to mitigate its impacts by combining novel technologies with sound scientific evidence. The potential gains from appropriate management extend far beyond those for the environment, indeed it may play a key role in transitioning towards a more sustainable society.  
  Address Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, Devon, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29124824 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2054  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Benis, K.; Ferrão, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Commercial farming within the urban built environment – Taking stock of an evolving field in northern countries Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Global Food Security Abbreviated Journal Global Food Security  
  Volume 17 Issue Pages 30-37  
  Keywords Planning  
  Abstract Urban horticulture has historically contributed to the supply of fresh produce to urban dwellers and has been gaining popularity over the last years in the Global North, with growing awareness of environmental and health concerns. Over the past few years, commercial farms have been emerging in major northern cities, promoting a trend of environmentally friendly food, grown in highly efficient installations on top of or in buildings. This paper presents a scoping study, including: (i) a review of the scientific literature addressing environmental, economic and social aspects of commercial farming in urban contexts; and (ii) a consultation exercise to inform and validate findings from the review, consisting of semi-structured interviews with a few practitioners in the Netherlands. The main findings are: (1) while the recent proliferation of commercial farms in major cities shows that these new modes of urban agricultural production are gaining momentum, establishing their viability as compared to conventional agricultural practices is a challenge when it comes to scalability, resource efficiency, and cost-effectiveness; (2) as it is still a relatively new field, very few studies have been conducted to quantitatively assess the impacts of commercial farming in urban areas; (3) given the complex environmental, economic and social dimensions of urban agriculture, holistic decision support tools could help integrating them in urban areas.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2211-9124 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1843  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Pushkala, K., Gupta, P. D., & Geetha, R. url  openurl
  Title Differential Drift in Menarcheal Age in Blind and Sighted Girls Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Gynaecology and Perinatology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 2 Issue 4 Pages 333-339  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Our survey data show that menarcheal age, both in sighted and blind girls has drifted towards younger years compared to 50 years back, however, in sighted girls it has gone further down compared to blind girls. In this paper we have explained the reasons, why it is so? For the comparison sake we were very careful to select sighted and blind girls from the same geographical region, socio-economical and education status and food habits. Taking into consideration, our earlier hypothesis, “blind women and breast cancer”, here also we propose that only the photo regulatory system for hormonal axis is responsible for differential lowering of Menarcheal age in sighted and blind girls, since all other regulatory factors are same in both the groups.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2320  
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Author Price, J.T.; Drye, B.; Domangue, R.J.; Paladino, F.V. url  openurl
  Title Exploring The Role of Artificial Lighting in Loggerhead Turtle (Caretta caretta) Nest-Site Selection and Hatchling Disorientation Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Herpetological Conservation and Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 415-422  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Beachfront artificial lighting can deter nesting sea turtles and disrupt the seaward orientation of hatchlings following their emergence from the nest. We investigated the effects of variable artificial lighting along the 17.5-km beachfront of St. George Island, Florida, USA on both nesting and hatchling Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta). We hypothesized that illumination affects nest-site selection and hatchling orientation of Loggerhead Turtles. We predicted that zones with higher artificial luminance levels would have a reduced number of nests laid by Loggerhead Turtles, as well as an increased hatchling disorientation rate. We divided the beachfront into zones 500 m in length and recorded nighttime luminance measurements with a photometer throughout the 2015 nesting season. The 2015 luminance values were analyzed together with Loggerhead Turtle nesting data from the 2015 season, as well as related to a longer-term dataset from 2011–2015. We found a negative relationship between nestsite selection and the intensity of artificial luminance, such that the brighter zones along the beachfront had fewer nests. Within this relationship, we found that nest density was significantly lower above a beachfront luminance value of ~800 μcd/m2. Finally, we found that hatchling disorientations occurred more frequently in zones with greater luminance. While many factors can affect nesting and hatchling Loggerhead behavior, our results suggest that variable intensities of artificial lighting at a nesting site may lead to a spatially clumped arrangement of nests and hatchling disorientations. These results can help improve the conservation and protection of nesting habitat as they further our understanding of the effects of artificial beachfront lighting on Loggerhead Turtles.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2106  
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