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Author Desaulniers, J.; Desjardins, S.; Lapierre, S.; Desgagné, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sleep Environment and Insomnia in Elderly Persons Living at Home Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Aging Research Abbreviated Journal Journal of Aging Research  
  Volume 2018 Issue Pages 1-7  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2090-2204 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2016  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zachary M. Cravens, Veronica A. Brown, Timothy J. Divoll, Justin G. Boyles url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminating prey selection in an insectivorous bat community, exposed to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 705-713  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract 1.Light pollution has been increasing around the globe and threatens to disturb natural rhythms of wildlife species. Artificial light impacts the behaviour of insectivorous bats in numerous ways, including foraging behaviour, which may in turn lead to altered prey selection.

2.In a manipulative field experiment, we collected faecal samples from six species of insectivorous bats in naturally dark and artificially lit conditions, and identified prey items using molecular methods to investigate effects of light pollution on prey selection.

3.Proportional differences of identified prey were not consistent and appeared to be species specific. Red bats, little brown bats, and gray bats exhibited expected increases in moths at lit sites. Beetle-specialist big brown bats had a sizeable increase in beetle consumption around lights, while tri-colored bats and evening bats showed little change in moth consumption between experimental conditions. Dietary overlap was high between experimental conditions within each species, and dietary breadth only changed significantly between experimental conditions in one species, the little brown bat.

4.Policy implications. Our results, building on others, demonstrate that bat-insect interactions may be more nuanced than the common assertion that moth consumption increases around lights. They highlight the need for a greater mechanistic understanding of bat-light interactions to predict which species will be most affected by light pollution. Given differences in bat and insect communities, we advocate biologists, land stewards, and civil planners work collaboratively to determine lighting solutions that minimize changes in foraging behaviour of species in the local bat community. Such efforts may allow stakeholders to more effectively craft management strategies to minimize unnatural shifts in prey selection caused by artificial lights.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1783  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gaston, K.J.; Holt, L.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nature, extent and ecological implications of night‐time light from road vehicles Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 55 Issue 5 Pages 2296-2307  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology; Lighting; Review  
  Abstract The erosion of night‐time by the introduction of artificial lighting constitutes a profound pressure on the natural environment. It has altered what had for millennia been reliable signals from natural light cycles used for regulating a host of biological processes, with impacts ranging from changes in gene expression to ecosystem processes.

Studies of these impacts have focused almost exclusively on those resulting from stationary sources of light emissions, and particularly streetlights. However, mobile sources, especially road vehicle headlights, contribute substantial additional emissions.

The ecological impacts of light emissions from vehicle headlights are likely to be especially high because these are (1) focused so as to light roadsides at higher intensities than commonly experienced from other sources, and well above activation thresholds for many biological processes; (2) projected largely in a horizontal plane and thus can carry over long distances; (3) introduced into much larger areas of the landscape than experience street lighting; (4) typically broad “white” spectrum, which substantially overlaps the action spectra of many biological processes and (5) often experienced at roadsides as series of pulses of light (produced by passage of vehicles), a dynamic known to have major biological impacts.

The ecological impacts of road vehicle headlights will markedly increase with projected global growth in numbers of vehicles and the road network, increasing the local severity of emissions (because vehicle numbers are increasing faster than growth in the road network) and introducing emissions into areas from which they were previously absent. The effects will be further exacerbated by technological developments that are increasing the intensity of headlight emissions and the amounts of blue light in emission spectra.

Synthesis and applications. Emissions from vehicle headlights need to be considered as a major, and growing, source of ecological impacts of artificial night‐time lighting. It will be a significant challenge to minimise these impacts whilst balancing drivers' needs at night and avoiding risk and discomfort for other road users. Nonetheless, there is potential to identify solutions to these conflicts, both through the design of headlights and that of roads.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1841  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Lewis, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night causes top-down and bottom-up trophic effects on invertebrate populations Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 2698-2706  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals; Plants  
  Abstract Globally, many ecosystems are exposed to artificial light at night. Nighttime lighting has direct biological impacts on species at all trophic levels. However, the effects of artificial light on biotic interactions remain, for the most part, to be determined.

We exposed experimental mesocosms containing combinations of grassland plants and invertebrate herbivores and predators to illumination at night over a 3‐year period to simulate conditions under different common forms of street lighting.

We demonstrate both top‐down (predation‐controlled) and bottom‐up (resource‐controlled) impacts of artificial light at night in grassland communities. The impacts on invertebrate herbivore abundance were wavelength‐dependent and mediated via other trophic levels.

White LED lighting decreased the abundance of a generalist herbivore mollusc by 55% in the presence of a visual predator, but not in its absence, while monochromatic amber light (with a peak wavelength similar to low‐pressure sodium lighting) decreased abundance of a specialist herbivore aphid (by 17%) by reducing the cover and flower abundance of its main food plant in the system. Artificial white light also significantly increased the food plant's foliar carbon to nitrogen ratio.

We conclude that exposure to artificial light at night can trigger ecological effects spanning trophic levels, and that the nature of such impacts depends on the wavelengths emitted by the lighting technology employed.

Policy implications. Our results confirm that artificial light at night, at illuminance levels similar to roadside vegetation, can have population effects mediated by both top‐down and bottom‐up effects on ecosystems. Given the increasing ubiquity of light pollution at night, these impacts may be widespread in the environment. These results underline the importance of minimizing ecosystem disruption by reducing light pollution in natural and seminatural ecosystems.
 
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2086  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Wakefield, A.; Broyles, M.; Stone, E.L.; Harris, S.; Jones, G.; Minderman, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantifying the attractiveness of broad-spectrum street lights to aerial nocturnal insects Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 714-722  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Sodium street lights, dominated by long wavelengths of light, are being replaced by broad‐spectrum, white lights globally, in particular light‐emitting diodes (LEDs). These white lights typically require less energy to operate and are therefore considered “eco‐friendly”. However, little attention has been paid to the impacts white lights may have upon local wildlife populations.

We compared insect attraction to orange (high‐pressure sodium, HPS) and white (metal halide, MH and LED) street lights experimentally using portable street lights and custom‐made flight intercept traps.

Significantly more (greater than five times as many) insects were attracted to white MH street lights than white (4,250 K) LED and HPS lights. There was no statistical difference in the numbers of insects attracted to LED and HPS lights for most taxa caught. However, rarefaction shows a greater diversity of insects caught at LED than HPS lights.

Policy implications. With the current, large‐scale conversion to white light‐emitting diode (LED) lighting, our results give insight into how changes to street light technology may affect wildlife populations and communities. We recommend avoiding metal halide light installations as they attract many more insects than competing technologies. We highlight the need to tailor LED lighting to prevent disturbances across multiple insect taxa.
 
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2224  
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