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Author Gaston, M.S.; Pereyra, L.C.; Vaira, M.
Title Artificial light at night and captivity induces differential effects on leukocyte profile, body condition, and erythrocyte size of a diurnal toad Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Amphibians; Toads
Abstract Light pollution or artificial lighting at night (ALAN) is an emerging threat to biodiversity that can disrupt physiological processes and behaviors. Because ALAN stressful effects are little studied in diurnal amphibian species, we investigated if chronic ALAN exposure affects the leukocyte profile, body condition, and blood cell sizes of a diurnal toad. We hand-captured male toads of Melanophryniscus rubriventris in Angosto de Jaire (Jujuy, Argentina). We prepared blood smears from three groups of toads: “field” (toads processed in the field immediately after capture), “natural light” (toads kept in the laboratory under captivity with natural photoperiod), and “constant light” (toads kept in the laboratory under captivity with constant photoperiod/ALAN). We significantly observed higher neutrophil proportions and neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio in toads under constant light treatment. In addition, we observed significantly better body condition and higher erythrocyte size in field toads compared with captive toads. In summary, ALAN can trigger a leukocyte response to stress in males of the diurnal toad M. rubriventris. In addition, captivity can affect the body condition and erythrocyte size of these toads.
Address Instituto de Ecorregiones Andinas (INECOA), Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, CONICET, San Salvador de Jujuy, Argentina
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30320969 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2049
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Author Durrant, J.; Botha, L.M.; Green, M.P.; Jones, T.M.
Title Artificial light at night prolongs juvenile development time in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol
Volume 330 Issue 4 Pages 225-233
Keywords Animals
Abstract A growing body of evidence exists to support a detrimental effect of the presence of artificial light at night (ALAN) on life-history and fitness traits. However, few studies simultaneously investigate multiple traits and the life stages at which changes manifest. We experimentally manipulated ALAN intensities, within those found in the natural environment, to explore the consequences for growth, survival, and reproductive success of the field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We reared crickets from egg to adult under a daily light-cycle consisting of 12 hr bright daylight (2,600 lx) followed by either 12 hr darkness (0 lx) or dim-light environments (1, 10, or 100 lx). We found egg hatch, adult survival, and reproductive measures were largely comparable for all treatments. However, juvenile development time (number of days from egg to adult) was on average 10 days (14%) longer and adults were also larger when crickets were exposed to any light at night (1, 10, or 100 lx). Our data demonstrate that chronic lifetime exposure to ALAN can modulate the timing of life-history events and may disrupt phenology to a similar extent as other abiotic factors.
Address The School of BioSciences, Faculty of Science, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1552-5007 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29862646 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1925
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Author Factors Influencing Quality of Sleep among Critically Ill Patients in Selected Hospitals in Western Kenya
Title Factors Influencing Quality of Sleep among Critically Ill Patients in Selected Hospitals in Western Kenya Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing Abbreviated Journal
Volume 56 Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Sleep is essential for rest, repair, well-being, and survival of the patient. Sleep quality varies in critically ill patients and is measured by patient's satisfaction of the sleep experience, integrating aspects of sleep initiation, sleep maintenance, quantity of sleep and the refreshment upon awakening. Altered sleep is a common problem experienced by patients in critical care units. This alterations may lead to physiological and psychological dysfunctions that may affect recovery. Critically ill patients frequently experience poor sleep, characterized by frequent disruptions and loss of circadian rhythms. This study investigated factors influencing the quality of sleep among critically ill patients in hospitals in Western Kenya. A cross-sectional descriptive research design was used to examine these factors. A total of 142 patients above 18 years who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and those transferred from the ICU to the general ward during the study period were conveniently selected for participation in the study. For triangulation, 10 nurses who worked in the ICU also participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from patients while a checklist was used to observe nursing interventions. Descriptive statistical techniques used were frequencies and percentages, while chi-square was used with the p-value set at 0.05 to test the association between factors and quality of sleep. The study results showed that frequent, nursing care activities 96.5% (n=137) noise from ventilator alarms 83.1% (n=118), feeling thirsty 57.7% (n= 82) and pain 52.8% (n=75) were among the major factors influencing the quality of sleep in ICU. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed patient factors significantly associated with quality sleep were age p=.006 and marital status p=.02, environmental factors significantly affecting sleep were presence of light at night with a p <0.0001 and noise from alarms p=.01. Physiological factors included feeling of thirst and hunger (p=0.03). This study recommends optimal use of analgesics and sedatives for pain management, adequate fluid replacement and hydration, noise reduction strategies, including minimizing monitor and ventilator alarms, reducing staff and telephone conversations and use of ear plugs for patients in ICU. Further, nurses should implement clustered procedures to reduce disruption of sleep among critically ill patients.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2974
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Author Suh, Y.-W.; Na, K.-H.; Ahn, S.-E.; Oh, J.
Title Effect of Ambient Light Exposure on Ocular Fatigue during Sleep Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Korean Medical Science Abbreviated Journal J Korean Med Sci
Volume 33 Issue 38 Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Background

To investigate the influence of nocturnal ambient light on visual function and ocular fatigue.

Methods

Sixty healthy subjects (30 males and 30 females) aged 19 through 29 years with no history of ocular disease were recruited. All subjects spent 3 consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. During the first and second nights, the subjects were not exposed to light during sleep, but during the third night, they were exposed to ambient light, measuring 5 or 10 lux at the eye level, which was randomly allocated with 30 subjects each. The visual function and ocular fatigue were assessed at 7 a.m. on the 3rd and 4th mornings, using best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, conjunctival hyperemia, tear break-up time, maximal blinking interval, ocular surface temperature, and subjective symptoms reported on a questionnaire.

Results

Three male and three female subjects failed to complete the study (4 in the 5 lux; 2 from the 10 lux). For the entire 54 subjects, tear break-up time and maximal blinking interval decreased (P = 0.015; 0.010, respectively), and nasal and temporal conjunctival hyperemia increased significantly after sleep under any ambient light (P < 0.001; 0.021, respectively). Eye tiredness and soreness also increased (P = 0.004; 0.024, respectively). After sleep under 5 lux light, only nasal conjunctival hyperemia increased significantly (P = 0.008). After sleep under 10 lux light, nasal and temporal conjunctival hyperemia, eye tiredness, soreness, difficulty in focusing, and ocular discomfort increased significantly (P < 0.05).

Conclusion

Nocturnal ambient light exposure increases ocular fatigue. Avoiding ambient light during sleep could be recommended to prevent ocular fatigue.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1011-8934 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1991
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Author Park, C.Y.
Title Night Light Pollution and Ocular Fatigue Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Journal of Korean Medical Science Abbreviated Journal J Korean Med Sci
Volume 33 Issue 38 Pages e257
Keywords Commentary; Human Health
Abstract
Address Department of Ophthalmology, Dongguk University, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1011-8934 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30220898; PMCID:PMC6137033 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2011
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