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Author Bowne, D.R.; Cosentino, B.J.; Anderson, L.J.; Bloch, C.P.; Cooke, S.; Crumrine, P.W.; Dallas, J.; Doran, A.; Dosch, J.J.; Druckenbrod, D.L.; Durtsche, R.D.; Garneau, D.; Genet, K.S.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Kish, P.A.; Kolozsvary, M.B.; Kuserk, F.T.; Lindquist, E.S.; Mankiewicz, C.; March, J.G.; Muir, T.J.; Murray, K.G.; Santulli, M.N.; Sicignano, F.J.; Smallwood, P.D.; Urban, R.A.; Winnett-Murray, K.; Zimmermann, C.R.
Title Effects of urbanization on the population structure of freshwater turtles across the United States Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal Conserv Biol
Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 1150-1161
Keywords Animals; Remote Sensing
Abstract Landscape-scale alterations that accompany urbanization may negatively affect the population structure of wildlife species such as freshwater turtles. Changes to nesting sites and higher mortality rates due to vehicular collisions and increased predator populations may particularly affect immature turtles and mature female turtles. We hypothesized that the proportions of adult female and immature turtles in a population will negatively correlate with landscape urbanization. As a collaborative effort of the Ecological Research as Education Network (EREN), we sampled freshwater turtle populations in 11 states across the central and eastern United States. Contrary to expectations, we found a significant positive relationship between proportions of mature female painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) and urbanization. We did not detect a relationship between urbanization and proportions of immature turtles. Urbanization may alter the thermal environment of nesting sites such that more females are produced as urbanization increases. Our approach of creating a collaborative network of scientists and students at undergraduate institutions proved valuable in terms of testing our hypothesis over a large spatial scale while also allowing students to gain hands-on experience in conservation science. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Department of Biology, Rogers State University, 1701 W. Will Rogers Boulevard, Claremore, OK 74017, U.S.A
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0888-8892 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29781169 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1920
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Author Brüning, A.; Kloas, W.; Preuer, T.; Hölker, F.
Title Influence of artificially induced light pollution on the hormone system of two common fish species, perch and roach, in a rural habitat Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon. No differences in melatonin concentrations between ALAN and natural conditions were detected. However, blood concentration of sex steroids (17β-estradiol; 11-ketotestosterone) as well as mRNA expression of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone) was reduced in both fish species. We conclude that ALAN can disturb biological rhythms in fish in urban waters. However, impacts on melatonin rhythm might have been blurred by individual differences, sampling methods and moonlight. The effect of ALAN on biomarkers of reproduction suggests a photo-labile period around the onset of gonadogenesis, including the experimental period (August). Light pollution therefore has a great potential to influence crucial life history traits with unpredictable outcome for fish population dynamics.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2051-1434 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1858
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Author Hansen, M.J.; Cocherell, D.E.; Cooke, S.J.; Patrick, P.H.; Sills, M.; Fangue, N.A.
Title Behavioural guidance of Chinook salmon smolts: the variable effects of LED spectral wavelength and strobing frequency Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Exploiting species-specific behavioural responses of fish to light is an increasingly promising technique to reduce the entrainment or impingement of fish that results from the diversion of water for human activities, such as hydropower or irrigation. Whilst there is some evidence that white light can be an effective deterrent for Chinook salmon smolts, the results have been mixed. There is a need to test the response of fish to different spectra and strobing frequencies to improve deterrent performance. We tested the movement and spatial response of groups of four fish to combinations of light-emitting diode (LED) spectra (red, green, blue and white light) during the day and night, and strobing frequencies (constant and 2Hz) during the day, using innovative LED technology intended as a behavioural guidance device for use in the field. Whilst strobing did not alter fish behaviour when compared to constant light, the red light had a repulsive effect during the day, with fish under this treatment spending significantly less time in the half of the arena closest to the behavioural guidance device compared to both the control and blue light. Importantly, this effect disappeared at night, where there were no differences in movement and space use found between spectra. There was some evidence of a potential attractive response of fish to the blue and green light during the day. Under these light treatments, fish spent the highest amount of time closest to the behavioural guidance device. Further tests manipulating the light intensity in the different spectra are needed to verify the mechanistic determinants of the observed behaviours. Results are discussed in reference to the known spectral sensitivities of the cone and rod photopigments in these fish, and further experiments are suggested to better relate the work to mitigating the effects on fish of infrastructure used for hydropower and irrigation.
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ISSN 2051-1434 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1947
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Author Skandali, C.; Lambiri, Y.S.
Title Optimization of Urban Street Lighting Conditions Focusing On Energy Saving, Safety and Users’ Needs Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Contemporary Urban Affairs Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue 3 Pages 112-121
Keywords Lighting; Economics; Planning
Abstract The outdoor lighting constitutes a significant part of the night activities of people in contemporary cities. Nevertheless, in many cases, this may result in the increasing and irrational use of it affecting the users of public areas, the environment and driving safety. The subject of this paper is to extend the discussion on the subject, to provide answers and to suggest methods for the improvement of the existing conditions in urban street lighting through the use of new technologies and smart lighting management systems, with the aim of achieving a smooth relationship between the user’s needs, safety, sustainability, quality of life and energy saving.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2101
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Author McKenna, H.; van der Horst, G.T.J.; Reiss, I.; Martin, D.
Title Clinical chronobiology: a timely consideration in critical care medicine Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Critical Care (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Crit Care
Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 124
Keywords Human Health; Review
Abstract A fundamental aspect of human physiology is its cyclical nature over a 24-h period, a feature conserved across most life on Earth. Organisms compartmentalise processes with respect to time in order to promote survival, in a manner that mirrors the rotation of the planet and accompanying diurnal cycles of light and darkness. The influence of circadian rhythms can no longer be overlooked in clinical settings; this review provides intensivists with an up-to-date understanding of the burgeoning field of chronobiology, and suggests ways to incorporate these concepts into daily practice to improve patient outcomes. We outline the function of molecular clocks in remote tissues, which adjust cellular and global physiological function according to the time of day, and the potential clinical advantages to keeping in time with them. We highlight the consequences of “chronopathology”, when this harmony is lost, and the risk factors for this condition in critically ill patients. We introduce the concept of “chronofitness” as a new target in the treatment of critical illness: preserving the internal synchronisation of clocks in different tissues, as well as external synchronisation with the environment. We describe methods for monitoring circadian rhythms in a clinical setting, and how this technology may be used for identifying optimal time windows for interventions, or to alert the physician to a critical deterioration of circadian rhythmicity. We suggest a chronobiological approach to critical illness, involving multicomponent strategies to promote chronofitness (chronobundles), and further investment in the development of personalised, time-based treatment for critically ill patients.
Address Critical Care Unit, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London, NW3 2QG, UK. daniel.martin@ucl.ac.uk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1364-8535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29747699 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1897
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