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Author Gaston, M.S.; Pereyra, L.C.; Vaira, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night and captivity induces differential effects on leukocyte profile, body condition, and erythrocyte size of a diurnal toad Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Amphibians; Toads  
  Abstract Light pollution or artificial lighting at night (ALAN) is an emerging threat to biodiversity that can disrupt physiological processes and behaviors. Because ALAN stressful effects are little studied in diurnal amphibian species, we investigated if chronic ALAN exposure affects the leukocyte profile, body condition, and blood cell sizes of a diurnal toad. We hand-captured male toads of Melanophryniscus rubriventris in Angosto de Jaire (Jujuy, Argentina). We prepared blood smears from three groups of toads: “field” (toads processed in the field immediately after capture), “natural light” (toads kept in the laboratory under captivity with natural photoperiod), and “constant light” (toads kept in the laboratory under captivity with constant photoperiod/ALAN). We significantly observed higher neutrophil proportions and neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio in toads under constant light treatment. In addition, we observed significantly better body condition and higher erythrocyte size in field toads compared with captive toads. In summary, ALAN can trigger a leukocyte response to stress in males of the diurnal toad M. rubriventris. In addition, captivity can affect the body condition and erythrocyte size of these toads.  
  Address Instituto de Ecorregiones Andinas (INECOA), Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, CONICET, San Salvador de Jujuy, Argentina  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher (up) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30320969 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2049  
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Author Ernst, S.; Łabuz, M.; Środa, K.; Kotulski, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Graph-Based Spatial Data Processing and Analysis for More Efficient Road Lighting Design Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 10 Issue 11 Pages 3850  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract The efficiency and affordability of modern street lighting equipment are improving quickly, but systems used to manage and design lighting installations seem to lag behind. One of their problems is the lack of consistent methods to integrate all relevant data. Tools used to manage lighting infrastructure are not aware of the geographic characteristics of the lit areas, and photometric calculation software requires a lot of manual editing by the designer, who needs to assess the characteristics of roads, define the segments, and assign the lighting classes according to standards. In this paper, we propose a graph-based method to integrate geospatial data from various sources to support the process of data preparation for photometric calculations. The method uses graph transformations to define segments and assign lighting classes. A prototype system was developed to conduct experiments using real-world data. The proposed approach is compared to results obtained by professional designers in a case study; the method was also applied to several European cities to assess its efficiency. The obtained results are much more fine-grained than those yielded by the traditional approach; as a result, the lighting is more adequate, especially when used in conjunction with automated optimisation tools.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher (up) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2051  
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Author Kawasaki, A.; Wisniewski, S.; Healey, B.; Pattyn, N.; Kunz, D.; Basner, M.; Münch, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impact of long-term daylight deprivation on retinal light sensitivity, circadian rhythms and sleep during the Antarctic winter Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Long-term daylight deprivation such as during the Antarctic winter has been shown to lead to delayed sleep timing and sleep fragmentation. We aimed at testing whether retinal sensitivity, sleep and circadian rest-activity will change during long-term daylight deprivation on two Antarctic bases (Concordia and Halley VI) in a total of 25 healthy crew members (mean age: 34 ± 11y; 7f). The pupil responses to different light stimuli were used to assess retinal sensitivity changes. Rest-activity cycles were continuously monitored by activity watches. Overall, our data showed increased pupil responses under scotopic (mainly rod-dependent), photopic (mainly L-/M-cone dependent) as well as bright-blue light (mainly melanopsin-dependent) conditions during the time without direct sunlight. Circadian rhythm analysis revealed a significant decay of intra-daily stability, indicating more fragmented rest-activity rhythms during the dark period. Sleep and wake times (as assessed from rest-activity recordings) were significantly delayed after the first month without sunlight (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that during long-term daylight deprivation, retinal sensitivity to blue light increases, whereas circadian rhythm stability decreases and sleep-wake timing is delayed.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher (up) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2053  
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Author Davies, T.W.; Smyth, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 872-882  
  Keywords Commentary; Animals; Plants  
  Abstract The environmental impacts of artificial light at night have been a rapidly growing field of global change science in recent years. Yet, light pollution has not achieved parity with other global change phenomena in the level of concern and interest it receives from the scientific community, government and nongovernmental organizations. This is despite the globally widespread, expanding and changing nature of night-time lighting and the immediacy, severity and phylogenetic breath of its impacts. In this opinion piece, we evidence 10 reasons why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century. Our reasons extend beyond those concerned principally with the environment, to also include impacts on human health, culture and biodiversity conservation more generally. We conclude that the growing use of night-time lighting will continue to raise numerous ecological, human health and cultural issues, but that opportunities exist to mitigate its impacts by combining novel technologies with sound scientific evidence. The potential gains from appropriate management extend far beyond those for the environment, indeed it may play a key role in transitioning towards a more sustainable society.  
  Address Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, Devon, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher (up) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29124824 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2054  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Elvidge, C.D.; Bazilian, M.D.; Zhizhin, M.; Ghosh, T.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.-C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The potential role of natural gas flaring in meeting greenhouse gas mitigation targets Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Energy Strategy Reviews Abbreviated Journal Energy Strategy Reviews  
  Volume 20 Issue Pages 156-162  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract In this paper, we compare 2015 satellite-derived natural gas (gas) flaring data with the greenhouse gas reduction targets presented by those countries in their nationally determined contributions (NDC) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Paris Agreement. Converting from flaring to utilization is an attractive option for reducing emissions. The analysis rates the potential role of reduction of gas flaring in meeting country-specific NDC targets. The analysis includes three categories of flaring: upstream in oil and gas production areas, downstream at refineries and transport facilities, and industrial (e.g., coal mines, landfills, water treatment plants, etc.). Upstream flaring dominates with 90.6% of all flaring. Global flaring represents less than 2% of the NDC reduction target. However, most gas flaring is concentrated in a limited set of countries, leaving the possibility that flaring reduction could contribute a sizeable portion of the NDC targets for specific countries. States that could fully meet their NDC targets through gas flaring reductions include: Yemen (240%), Algeria (197%), and Iraq (136%). Countries which could meet a substantial portion of their NDC targets with gas flaring reductions include: Gabon (94%), Algeria (48%), Venezuela (47%), Iran (34%), and Sudan (33%). On the other hand, several countries with large flared gas volumes could only meet a small portion of their NDC targets from gas flaring reductions, including the Russian Federation (2.4%) and the USA (0.1%). These findings may be useful in guiding national level efforts to meet NDC greenhouse gas reduction targets.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher (up) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2211467X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2055  
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