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Author Borges, R.M. openurl 
  Title Dark Matters: Challenges of Nocturnal Communication Between Plants and Animals in Delivery of Pollination Services Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 91 Issue 1 Pages 33-42  
  Keywords Plants; Animals  
  Abstract The night is a special niche characterized by dim light, lower temperatures, and higher humidity compared to the day. Several animals have made the transition from the day into the night and have acquired unique adaptations to cope with the challenges of performing nocturnal activities. Several plant species have opted to bloom at night, possibly as a response to aridity to prevent excessive water loss through evapotranspiration since flowering is often a water-demanding process, or to protect pollen from heat stress. Nocturnal pollinators have visual adaptations to function under dim light conditions but may also trade off vision against olfaction when they are dependent on nectar-rewarding and scented flowers. Nocturnal pollinators may use CO2 and humidity cues emanating from freshly-opened flowers as indicators of nectar-rich resources. Some endothermic nocturnal insect pollinators are attracted to thermogenic flowers within which they remain to obtain heat as a reward to increase their energy budget. This review focuses on mechanisms that pollinators use to find flowers at night, and the signals that nocturnally blooming flowers may employ to attract pollinators under dim light conditions. It also indicates gaps in our knowledge. While millions of years of evolutionary time have given pollinators and plants solutions to the delivery of pollination services and to the offering of appropriate rewards, this history of successful evolution is being threatened by artificial light at night. Excessive and inappropriate illumination associated with anthropogenic activities has resulted in significant light pollution which serves to undermine life processes governed by dim light.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1832  
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Author Koen, E.L.; Minnaar, C.; Roever, C.L.; Boyles, J.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Emerging threat of the 21(st) century lightscape to global biodiversity Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 24 Issue 6 Pages 2315-2324  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Over the last century the temporal and spatial distribution of light on Earth has been drastically altered by human activity. Despite mounting evidence of detrimental effects of light pollution on organisms and their trophic interactions, the extent to which light pollution threatens biodiversity on a global scale remains unclear. We assessed the spatial extent and magnitude of light encroachment by measuring change in the extent of light using satellite imagery from 1992 to 2012 relative to species richness for terrestrial and freshwater mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The encroachment of light into previously dark areas was consistently high, often doubling, in areas of high species richness for all four groups. This pattern persisted for nocturnal groups (e.g., bats, owls, and geckos) and species considered vulnerable to extinction. Areas with high species richness and large increases in light extent were clustered within newly industrialized regions where expansion of light is likely to continue unabated unless we act to conserve remaining darkness. Implementing change at a global scale requires global public, and therefore scientific, support. Here, we offer substantial evidence that light extent is increasing where biodiversity is high, representing an emerging threat to global biodiversity requiring immediate attention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address Center for Ecology and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, 62901, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language (up) Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29575356 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1833  
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Author Rodríguez Martín, A.; Holmberg, R.; Dann, P.; Chiaradia, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Penguin colony attendance under artificial lights for ecotourism Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol  
  Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 457-464  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Wildlife watching is an emerging ecotourism activity around the world. In Australia and New Zealand, night viewing of little penguins attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors per year. As penguins start coming ashore after sunset, artificial lighting is essential to allow visitors to view them in the dark. This alteration of the nightscape warrants investigation for any potential effects of artificial lighting on penguin behavior. We experimentally tested how penguins respond to different light wavelengths (colors) and intensities to examine effects on the colony attendance behavior at two sites on Phillip Island, Australia. At one site, nocturnal artificial illumination has been used for penguin viewing for decades, whereas at the other site, the only light is from the natural night sky. Light intensity did not affect colony attendance behaviors of penguins at the artificially lit site, probably due to penguin habituation to lights. At the not previously lit site, penguins preferred lit paths over dark paths to reach their nests. Thus, artificial light might enhance penguin vision at night and consequently it might reduce predation risk and energetic costs of locomotion through obstacle and path detection. Although penguins are faithful to their path, they can be drawn to artificial lights at small spatial scale, so light pollution could attract penguins to undesirable lit areas. When artificial lighting is required, we recommend keeping lighting as dim and time-restricted as possible to mitigate any negative effects on the behavior of penguins and their natural habitat.  
  Address Research Department, Phillip Island Nature Parks, Cowes, Victoria, Australia  
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  Language English Summary Language (up) Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29603671 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1834  
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Author Nguyen, Cuong; Noy, Ilan openurl 
  Title Measuring the Impact of Insurance on Urban Recovery with L ight : The 2011 New Zealand Earthquake Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication WORKING PAPERS IN ECONOMICS AND FINANCE Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 2/2018 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract We measure the longer-term effect of a major earthquake on the local economy, using night-time light intensity measured from space, and investigate whether insurance claim payments for damaged residential property affected the local recovery process. We focus on the destructive Christchurch earthquake of 2011 as our case study. In this event more than 95% of residential housing units were covered by insurance, but insurance payments were staggered over 5 years, enabling us to identify their local impact. We find that night-time luminosity can capture the process of recovery and describe the recovery’s determinants. We also find that insurance payments contributed significantly to the process of economic recovery after the earthquake, but delayed payments were less affective and cash settlement of claims were more affective in contributing to local recovery than insurance-managed rebuilding.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1836  
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Author Sun, Shaojie; Lu, Yingcheng; Liu, Yongxue; Wang, Mengqiu; Hu, Chuanmin url  doi
openurl 
  Title Tracking an oil tanker collision and spilled oils in the East China Sea using multi‐sensor day and night satellite imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Geophysical Research Letters Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 45 Issue 7 Pages 3212-3220  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Satellite remote sensing is well known to play a critical role in monitoring marine accidents such as oil spills, yet the recent SANCHI oil tanker collision event in January 2018 in the East China Sea indicates that traditional techniques using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) or daytime optical imagery could not provide timely and adequate coverage. In this study, we show the unprecedented value of VIIRS Nightfire product and Day/Night Band (DNB) data in tracking the oil tanker's drifting pathway and locations when all other means are not as effective for the same purpose. Such pathway and locations can also be reproduced with a numerical model, with RMS error of < 15 km. While high‐resolution optical imagery after 4 days of the tanker's sinking reveals much larger oil spill area (> 350 km2) than previous reports, the impact of the spilled condensate oil on the marine environment requires further research.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1838  
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