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Author Boswell, W.T.; Boswell, M.; Walter, D.J.; Navarro, K.L.; Chang, J.; Lu, Y.; Savage, M.G.; Shen, J.; Walter, R.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Exposure to 4100K fluorescent light elicits sex specific transcriptional responses in Xiphophorus maculatus skin Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology : CBP Abbreviated Journal Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol  
  Volume 208 Issue Pages 96-104  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract It has been reported that exposure to artificial light may affect oxygen intake, heart rate, absorption of vitamins and minerals, and behavioral responses in humans. We have reported specific gene expression responses in the skin of Xiphophorus fish after exposure to ultraviolet light (UV), as well as, both broad spectrum and narrow waveband visible light. In regard to fluorescent light (FL), we have shown that male X. maculatus exposed to 4100K FL (i.e. “cool white”) rapidly suppress transcription of many genes involved with DNA replication and repair, chromosomal segregation, and cell cycle progression in skin. We have also detailed sex specific transcriptional responses of Xiphophorus skin after exposure to UVB. However, investigation of gender differences in global gene expression response after exposure to 4100K FL has not been reported, despite common use of this FL source for residential, commercial, and animal facility illumination. Here, we compare RNASeq results analyzed to assess changes in the global transcription profiles of female and male X. maculatus skin in response to 4100K FL exposure. Our results suggest 4100K FL exposure incites a sex-biased genetic response including up-modulation of inflammation in females and down modulation of DNA repair/replication in males. In addition, we identify clusters of genes that become oppositely modulated in males and females after FL exposure that are principally involved in cell death and cell proliferation.  
  Address Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Xiphophorus Genetic Stock Center, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA. Electronic address: RW12@txstate.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1532-0456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28965926 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1739  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Konkal, P.; Ganesh, C.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Exposure to low or high light intensity affects pituitary-testicular activity in the fish Oreochromis mossambicus Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Aquaculture Abbreviated Journal Aquaculture  
  Volume 497 Issue Pages 109-116  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Light is an important factor for the successful reproduction of most fish. In this investigation, effect of different light intensities on pituitary-testis axis was studied for a period of 21 days, under normal photoperiodic regime in the tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. The mean numbers of spermatogonia (Sg), primary spermatocytes (Ps), secondary spermatocytes (Ss), early spermatids (Est) and late spermatids (Lst) did not show significant difference between fish exposed to moderate light intensity (MLI) and initial controls or controls, whereas the mean numbers of Sg were significantly lower in fish exposed to low light intensity (LLI) compared to those of initial controls, controls and MLI groups. However, the mean numbers of Ps, Ss, Est and Lst were significantly lower in fish exposed to LLI and high light intensity (HLI) compared to those of other experimental groups. Furthermore, in the pituitary gland, weakly immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH) secreting cells were observed in the proximal pars distalis (PPD) region in fish exposed to LLI and HLI in contrast to the intense immunolabelling of these cells in initial controls, controls and MLI groups. The androgen receptors showed diminished immunoreactivity in the Sertoli cells along the seminiferous lobules of the testis in fish exposed to LLI and HLI, whereas the strongly immunoreactive androgen receptors were observed in the Sertoli cells in initial controls, controls and MLI groups. Taken together, these results indicate that long-term exposure to low or high light intensity light suppresses spermatogenetic process and that this inhibition is due to reduced secretory activity of LH cells in the pituitary gland and androgen secretion in the testis of the fish O. mossambicus.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 0044-8486 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1974  
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Author Syposz, M.; Gonçalves, F.; Carty, M.; Hoppitt, W.; Manco, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Factors influencing Manx Shearwater grounding on the west coast of Scotland Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Ibis Abbreviated Journal Ibis  
  Volume 160 Issue 4 Pages 846-854  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Grounding of thousands of newly fledged petrels and shearwaters (family Procellariidae) in built‐up areas due to artificial light is a global problem. Due to their anatomy these grounded birds find it difficult to take off from built‐up areas and many fall victim to predation, cars, dehydration or starvation. This research investigated a combination of several factors that may influence the number of Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus groundings in a coastal village of Scotland located close to a nesting site for this species. A model was developed that used meteorological variables and moon cycle to predict the daily quantity of birds that were recovered on the ground. The model, explaining 46.32% of the variance of the data, revealed how new moon and strong onshore winds influence grounding. To a lesser extent, visibility conditions can also have an effect on grounding probabilities. The analysis presented in this study can improve rescue campaigns of not only Manx Shearwaters but also other species attracted to the light pollution by predicting conditions leading to an increase in the number of groundings. It could also inform local authorities when artificial light intensity needs to be reduced.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0019-1019 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2778  
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Author Petržala, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Feasibility of inverse problem solution for determination of city emission function from night sky radiance measurements Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 213 Issue Pages 86-94  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The knowledge of the emission function of a city is crucial for simulation of sky glow in its vicinity. The indirect methods to achieve this function from radiances measured over a part of the sky have been recently developed. In principle, such methods represent an ill-posed inverse problem. This paper deals with the theoretical feasibility study of various approaches to solving of given inverse problem. Particularly, it means testing of fitness of various stabilizing functionals within the Tikhonov’s regularization. Further, the L-curve and generalized cross validation methods were investigated as indicators of an optimal regularization parameter. At first, we created the theoretical model for calculation of a sky spectral radiance in the form of a functional of an emission spectral radiance. Consequently, all the mentioned approaches were examined in numerical experiments with synthetical data generated for the fictitious city and loaded by random errors. The results demonstrate that the second order Tikhonov’s regularization method together with regularization parameter choice by the L-curve maximum curvature criterion provide solutions which are in good agreement with the supposed model emission functions.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1868  
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Author Bharti, N.; Tatem, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Fluctuations in anthropogenic nighttime lights from satellite imagery for five cities in Niger and Nigeria Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scientific Data Abbreviated Journal Sci Data  
  Volume 5 Issue Pages 180256  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Dynamic measures of human populations are critical for global health management but are often overlooked, largely because they are difficult to quantify. Measuring human population dynamics can be prohibitively expensive in under-resourced communities. Satellite imagery can provide measurements of human populations, past and present, to complement public health analyses and interventions. We used anthropogenic illumination from publicly accessible, serial satellite nighttime images as a quantifiable proxy for seasonal population variation in five urban areas in Niger and Nigeria. We identified population fluxes as the mechanistic driver of regional seasonal measles outbreaks. Our data showed 1) urban illumination fluctuated seasonally, 2) corresponding population fluctuations were sufficient to drive seasonal measles outbreaks, and 3) overlooking these fluctuations during vaccination activities resulted in below-target coverage levels, incapable of halting transmission of the virus. We designed immunization solutions capable of achieving above-target coverage of both resident and mobile populations. Here, we provide detailed data on brightness from 2000-2005 for 5 cities in Niger and Nigeria and detailed methodology for application to other populations.  
  Address WorldPop, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Southampton; Flowminder Foundation, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2052-4463 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30422123; PMCID:PMC6233255 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2769  
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