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Author Factors Influencing Quality of Sleep among Critically Ill Patients in Selected Hospitals in Western Kenya url  openurl
  Title (up) Factors Influencing Quality of Sleep among Critically Ill Patients in Selected Hospitals in Western Kenya Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 56 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Sleep is essential for rest, repair, well-being, and survival of the patient. Sleep quality varies in critically ill patients and is measured by patient's satisfaction of the sleep experience, integrating aspects of sleep initiation, sleep maintenance, quantity of sleep and the refreshment upon awakening. Altered sleep is a common problem experienced by patients in critical care units. This alterations may lead to physiological and psychological dysfunctions that may affect recovery. Critically ill patients frequently experience poor sleep, characterized by frequent disruptions and loss of circadian rhythms. This study investigated factors influencing the quality of sleep among critically ill patients in hospitals in Western Kenya. A cross-sectional descriptive research design was used to examine these factors. A total of 142 patients above 18 years who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and those transferred from the ICU to the general ward during the study period were conveniently selected for participation in the study. For triangulation, 10 nurses who worked in the ICU also participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from patients while a checklist was used to observe nursing interventions. Descriptive statistical techniques used were frequencies and percentages, while chi-square was used with the p-value set at 0.05 to test the association between factors and quality of sleep. The study results showed that frequent, nursing care activities 96.5% (n=137) noise from ventilator alarms 83.1% (n=118), feeling thirsty 57.7% (n= 82) and pain 52.8% (n=75) were among the major factors influencing the quality of sleep in ICU. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed patient factors significantly associated with quality sleep were age p=.006 and marital status p=.02, environmental factors significantly affecting sleep were presence of light at night with a p <0.0001 and noise from alarms p=.01. Physiological factors included feeling of thirst and hunger (p=0.03). This study recommends optimal use of analgesics and sedatives for pain management, adequate fluid replacement and hydration, noise reduction strategies, including minimizing monitor and ventilator alarms, reducing staff and telephone conversations and use of ear plugs for patients in ICU. Further, nurses should implement clustered procedures to reduce disruption of sleep among critically ill patients.  
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2974  
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Author Petržala, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Feasibility of inverse problem solution for determination of city emission function from night sky radiance measurements Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 213 Issue Pages 86-94  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The knowledge of the emission function of a city is crucial for simulation of sky glow in its vicinity. The indirect methods to achieve this function from radiances measured over a part of the sky have been recently developed. In principle, such methods represent an ill-posed inverse problem. This paper deals with the theoretical feasibility study of various approaches to solving of given inverse problem. Particularly, it means testing of fitness of various stabilizing functionals within the Tikhonov’s regularization. Further, the L-curve and generalized cross validation methods were investigated as indicators of an optimal regularization parameter. At first, we created the theoretical model for calculation of a sky spectral radiance in the form of a functional of an emission spectral radiance. Consequently, all the mentioned approaches were examined in numerical experiments with synthetical data generated for the fictitious city and loaded by random errors. The results demonstrate that the second order Tikhonov’s regularization method together with regularization parameter choice by the L-curve maximum curvature criterion provide solutions which are in good agreement with the supposed model emission functions.  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1868  
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Author Bharti, N.; Tatem, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Fluctuations in anthropogenic nighttime lights from satellite imagery for five cities in Niger and Nigeria Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scientific Data Abbreviated Journal Sci Data  
  Volume 5 Issue Pages 180256  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Dynamic measures of human populations are critical for global health management but are often overlooked, largely because they are difficult to quantify. Measuring human population dynamics can be prohibitively expensive in under-resourced communities. Satellite imagery can provide measurements of human populations, past and present, to complement public health analyses and interventions. We used anthropogenic illumination from publicly accessible, serial satellite nighttime images as a quantifiable proxy for seasonal population variation in five urban areas in Niger and Nigeria. We identified population fluxes as the mechanistic driver of regional seasonal measles outbreaks. Our data showed 1) urban illumination fluctuated seasonally, 2) corresponding population fluctuations were sufficient to drive seasonal measles outbreaks, and 3) overlooking these fluctuations during vaccination activities resulted in below-target coverage levels, incapable of halting transmission of the virus. We designed immunization solutions capable of achieving above-target coverage of both resident and mobile populations. Here, we provide detailed data on brightness from 2000-2005 for 5 cities in Niger and Nigeria and detailed methodology for application to other populations.  
  Address WorldPop, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Southampton; Flowminder Foundation, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2052-4463 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:30422123; PMCID:PMC6233255 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2769  
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Author Gonzalez, T.J.; Lu, Y.; Boswell, M.; Boswell, W.; Medrano, G.; Walter, S.; Ellis, S.; Savage, M.; Varga, Z.M.; Lawrence, C.; Sanders, G.; Walter, R.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Fluorescent light exposure incites acute and prolonged immune responses in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skin Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology : CBP Abbreviated Journal Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol  
  Volume 208 Issue Pages 87-95  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light produces an emission spectrum that is considerably different than the solar spectrum. Artificial light has been shown to affect various behavior and physiological processes in vertebrates. However, there exists a paucity of data regarding the molecular genetic effects of artificial light exposure. Previous studies showed that one of the commonly used fluorescent light source (FL; 4100K or “cool white”) can affect signaling pathways related to maintenance of circadian rhythm, cell cycle progression, chromosome segregation, and DNA repair/recombination in the skin of male Xiphophorus maculatus. These observations raise questions concerning the kinetics of the FL induced gene expression response, and which biological functions become modulated at various times after light exposure. To address these questions, we exposed zebrafish to 4100K FL and utilized RNASeq to assess gene expression changes in skin at various times (1 to 12h) after FL exposure. We found 4100K FL incites a robust early (1-2h) transcriptional response, followed by a more protracted late response (i.e., 4-12h). The early transcriptional response involves genes associated with cell migration/infiltration and cell proliferation as part of an overall increase in immune function and inflammation. The protracted late transcriptional response occurs within gene sets predicted to maintain and perpetuate the inflammatory response, as well as suppression of lipid, xenobiotic, and melatonin metabolism.  
  Address Xiphophorus Genetic Stock Center, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 419 Centennial Hall, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA. Electronic address: RWalter@txstate.edu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1532-0456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28965927 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1740  
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Author Schuler, L.D.; Schatz, R.; Berweger, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) From global radiance to an increased local political awareness of light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Environmental Science & Policy Abbreviated Journal Environmental Science & Policy  
  Volume 89 Issue Pages 142-152  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Public Safety; Animals  
  Abstract We present a novel transparent method to analyze measurements of the Suomi NPP (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite in night vision, into luminous intensity and luminance on the community level, with a special focus to address light planners and non-experts, and for the first time, to further address politicians, decision-makers and law-makers, and governmental agencies. We checked the propagated efficiency of road lighting and its impact on luminous flux, and identified a waste of light emissions in the largest city of Switzerland, Zurich. We looked at security (issues like criminal acts) and found no correlation with communities’ luminous intensity. We assessed road safety (accidents) against local luminance and found no evidence of darkness being more risky when the overall distribution of illuminance on roads is considered. We screened crayfish habitats in the Canton of Zurich against local illuminance and found clear evidence of preferred darkness for the living. Based on this finding, we propose an upper limit for light immissions in the crayfish habitats. These four analyses have been chosen to demonstrate the usefulness of Suomi NPP's coverage in combination with our approach. We could apply it to ecological, social and economical topics. We hope others will follow and we can draw more attention of governments to take action to reduce the light pollution on local levels, like Langnau am Albis of Switzerland has exemplified.  
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  ISSN 1462-9011 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1965  
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