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Author Watson, L.A.; Phillips, A.J.K.; Hosken, I.T.; McGlashan, E.M.; Anderson, C.; Lack, L.C.; Lockley, S.W.; Rajaratnam, S.M.W.; Cain, S.W.
Title (up) Increased sensitivity of the circadian system to light in delayed sleep-wake phase disorder Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract KEY POINTS: This is the first study to demonstrate an altered circadian phase shifting response in a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Patients with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) demonstrate greater sensitivity of the circadian system to the phase delaying effects of light. Increased circadian sensitivity to light is associated with later circadian timing within both control and DSWPD groups. DSWPD patients had a greater sustained pupil response after light exposure. Treatments for DSWPD should consider sensitivity of the circadian system to light as a potential underlying vulnerability, making patients susceptible to relapse. ABSTRACT: Patients with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) exhibit delayed sleep-wake behavior relative to desired bedtime, often leading to chronic sleep restriction and daytime dysfunction. The majority of DSWPD patients also display delayed circadian timing in the melatonin rhythm. Hypersensitivity of the circadian system to phase delaying light is a plausible physiological basis for DSWPD vulnerability. We compared the phase shifting response to a 6.5-h light exposure ( approximately 150 lux) between male patients with diagnosed DSWPD (n = 10; aged 22.4 +/- 3.3 years) and male healthy controls (n = 11; aged 22.4 +/- 2.4 years). Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was measured under controlled conditions in dim light (<3 lux) before and after light exposure. Correcting for the circadian time of the light exposure, DSWPD patients exhibited 31.5% greater phase delay shifts than healthy controls. In both groups, a later initial phase of the melatonin rhythm was associated with greater magnitude of phase shifts, indicating that increased circadian sensitivity to light may be a factor that contributes to delayed phase, even in non-clinical groups. DSWPD patients also had reduced pupil size following the light exposure, and showed a trend towards increased melatonin suppression during light exposure. These findings indicate that, for patients with DSWPD, assessment of light sensitivity may be an important factor that can inform behavioral therapy, including minimization of exposure to phase-delaying night-time light. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30281150 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2026
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Author Brüning, A.; Kloas, W.; Preuer, T.; Hölker, F.
Title (up) Influence of artificially induced light pollution on the hormone system of two common fish species, perch and roach, in a rural habitat Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon. No differences in melatonin concentrations between ALAN and natural conditions were detected. However, blood concentration of sex steroids (17β-estradiol; 11-ketotestosterone) as well as mRNA expression of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone) was reduced in both fish species. We conclude that ALAN can disturb biological rhythms in fish in urban waters. However, impacts on melatonin rhythm might have been blurred by individual differences, sampling methods and moonlight. The effect of ALAN on biomarkers of reproduction suggests a photo-labile period around the onset of gonadogenesis, including the experimental period (August). Light pollution therefore has a great potential to influence crucial life history traits with unpredictable outcome for fish population dynamics.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2051-1434 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1858
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Author Figura, J.; Haughwout, C.; Cahoy, K.; Welle, R.; Hardy, B.; Pack, D.; Bosh, A.
Title (up) Initial Demonstration of an Uplink LED Beacon to a Low Earth Orbiting CubeSat Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Small Satellites Abbreviated Journal
Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 719-732
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract In this study, an uplink light-emitting diode (LED) beacon that can enable a CubeSat to locate a laser communication ground station was designed, constructed, and tested, and detection of the beacon from low Earth orbit (LEO) with a CMOS camera on the AeroCube-5 CubeSat was demonstrated. The LED beacon described is an alternative to the near-infrared laser beacons commonly used in laser communication systems, and has the potential to be cheaper, easier to point, and to require less regulatory coordination than a laser beacon, while performing the same function. An optical design is detailed, consisting of an array of 80 green LEDs with a center wavelength of 528 nm, producing 15.9 watts of free-space optical power, focused to a beamwidth of 8.12 degrees full-widthhalf-max (FWHM). A link budget is presented that shows the beacon is detectable by a CubeSat-mounted camera with a 7.9 mm diameter aperture and a silicon CMOS detector. A prototype beacon comprised of an LED array, focusing optics, thermal control, and tracking mechanisms was designed and constructed, and laboratory measurements of the beam profile and optical power of the prototype beacon using an optical power meter are presented herein. A field test is also described, in which the beacon was deployed at Wallace Astrophysical Observatory in the early morning of May 15, 2017 and imaged with a camera on AeroCube-5. The array is successfully identified in a sequence of five images taken by the CubeSat, demonstrating the viability of LED uplink beacons with CubeSat imagers.
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Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2108
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Author Grubisic, M.; Van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Manfrin, A.; Hölker, F.
Title (up) Insect declines and agroecosystems: does light pollution matter? Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Annals of Applied Biology Abbreviated Journal Ann. of Appl. Biol.
Volume 173 Issue 1 Pages 180-189
Keywords Animals; Ecology; Review
Abstract Drastic declines in insect populations, ‘Ecological Armageddon’, have recently gained increased attention in the scientific community, and are commonly considered to be the consequence of large‐scale factors such as land‐use changes, use of pesticides, climate change and habitat fragmentation. Artificial light at night (ALAN), a pervasive global change that strongly impacts insects, remains, however, infrequently recognised as a potential contributor to the observed declines. Here, we provide a summary of recent evidence of impacts of ALAN on insects and discuss how these impacts can drive declines in insect populations in light‐polluted areas. ALAN can increase overall environmental pressure on insect populations, and this is particularly important in agroecosystems where insect communities provide important ecosystem services (such as natural pest control, pollination, conservation of soil structure and fertility and nutrient cycling), and are already under considerable environmental pressure. We discuss how changes in insect populations driven by ALAN and ALAN itself may hinder these services to influence crop production and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Understanding the contribution of ALAN and other factors to the decline of insects is an important step towards mitigation and the recovery of the insect fauna in our landscapes. In future studies, the role of increased nocturnal illumination also needs to be examined as a possible causal factor of insect declines in the ongoing ‘Ecological Armageddon’, along with the more commonly examined factors. Given the large scale of agricultural land use and the potential of ALAN to indirectly and directly impact crop production and biodiversity, a better understanding of effects of ALAN in agroecosystems is urgently needed.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1939
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Author Dutta, H.
Title (up) Insights into the impacts of three current environmental problems on Amphibians Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication European Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 15-27
Keywords Animals; Review
Abstract Global warming, light pollution and noise are common human-induced environmental problems that are escalating at a high rate. Their consequences on wildlife have mostly been overlooked, with the exception of a few species with respect to climate change. The problems often occur simultaneously and exert their negative effects together at the same time. In other words, their impacts are combined. Studies have never focused on more than one problem, and so, such combined effects have never been understood properly. The review addresses this lacuna in the case of amphibians, which are a highly vulnerable group. It divides the overall impacts of the problems into seven categories (behaviour, health, movement, distribution, phenology, development and reproductive success) and then assesses their combined impact through statistical analyses. It revealed that amphibian calling is the most vulnerable aspect to the combined impacts. This could provide important input for conservation of amphibians.
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ISSN 1339-8474 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2166
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