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Author Stathakis, D.; Baltas, P.
Title (up) Seasonal population estimates based on night-time lights Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Computers, Environment and Urban Systems Abbreviated Journal Computers, Environment and Urban Systems
Volume 68 Issue Pages 133-141
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The objective of this paper is to present a method for estimating seasonally specific ambient population counts. The central assumption is that the variation in observed night-lights is a valid proxy for ambient population. Island populations are used for validation, where it is possible to derive estimates of ambient population from national statistics. The method is then applied to the whole of Greece. The validation shows a strong correlation amongst night-lights derived estimates and the reference dataset. Based on the proposed method, national maps are produced showing the month when seasonality is in its peak, the peak value during that month and the overall length of the season, in terms of how many months exceed a certain threshold. Different seasonality patterns are revealed. An advantage of the proposed method, compared to other contemporary approaches, is that it is based on public domain, global data.
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ISSN 0198-9715 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2177
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Author Wang, J., Zhang, J., Gong, L., Li, Q., Zhou, D.
Title (up) Seismic Indirect Economic Loss Assessment and Recovery Evaluation Using Night-time Light Images – Application for Wenchuan Earthquake Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Abbreviated Journal
Volume In press Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing; Economics
Abstract Seismic indirect economic loss not only has a major impact on regional economic recovery policies, but also related to the economic assistance at the national level. Due to the Cross-regional economic activities and the difficulty of obtaining data, it's difficult that the indirect economic loss survey covers all economic activities. However, night-time light in an area can reflect the economic activity of the region. This paper focuses on the indirect economic losses caused by the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and evaluated the progress of restoration and reconstruction based on night-time light Images. First, the functional relationship between GDP and night-time light parameters was established based on the pre-earthquake data. Next, the indirect loss of the earthquake was evaluated by the night-time light attenuation in the disaster area after the earthquake. Then, the capacity recovery, which is characterized by the brightness recovery process of the light area, was evaluated. Lastly, the process of light expansion in the disaster area was analyzed to evaluate the economic expansion speed and efficiency.
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Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2064
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Author Kehoe, R.C.; Cruse, D.; Sanders, D.; Gaston, K.J.; van Veen, F.J.F.
Title (up) Shifting daylength regimes associated with range shifts alter aphid-parasitoid community dynamics Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 8 Issue 17 Pages 8761-8769
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract With climate change leading to poleward range expansion of species, populations are exposed to new daylength regimes along latitudinal gradients. Daylength is a major factor affecting insect life cycles and activity patterns, so a range shift leading to new daylength regimes is likely to affect population dynamics and species interactions; however, the impact of daylength in isolation on ecological communities has not been studied so far. Here, we tested for the direct and indirect effects of two different daylengths on the dynamics of experimental multitrophic insect communities. We compared the community dynamics under “southern” summer conditions of 14.5-hr daylight to “northern” summer conditions of 22-hr daylight. We show that food web dynamics indeed respond to daylength with one aphid species (Acyrthosiphon pisum) reaching much lower population sizes at the northern daylength regime compared to under southern conditions. In contrast, in the same communities, another aphid species (Megoura viciae) reached higher population densities under northern conditions. This effect at the aphid level was driven by an indirect effect of daylength causing a change in competitive interaction strengths, with the different aphid species being more competitive at different daylength regimes. Additionally, increasing daylength also increased growth rates in M. viciae making it more competitive under summer long days. As such, the shift in daylength affected aphid population sizes by both direct and indirect effects, propagating through species interactions. However, contrary to expectations, parasitoids were not affected by daylength. Our results demonstrate that range expansion of whole communities due to climate change can indeed change interaction strengths between species within ecological communities with consequences for community dynamics. This study provides the first evidence of daylength affecting community dynamics, which could not be predicted from studying single species separately.
Address College of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Exeter Penryn Cornwall UK
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:30271543; PMCID:PMC6157684 Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2100
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Author Lessard, B.
Title (up) Shot in the Dark: Nocturnal Philosophy and Night Photography Type Book Chapter
Year 2018 Publication Critical Distance in Documentary Media Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 45-67
Keywords Society; Art
Abstract This chapter examines the neglected practice of night photography, and how it critically addresses the environmental, sociohistorical, and urban issues in recent series by Christina Seely, Bruno Lessard, Michel Huneault, and Jeanine Michna-Bales. Drawing on Jacques Derrida, Emmanuel Levinas, and the emerging field of night studies to create a nocturnal philosophy—a dark photology—with which to frame the multifaceted issues at the heart of the series, the author examines the value that these photographic artists place upon night to document light pollution around the world, ongoing urban transformations in China, an environmental catastrophe and its aftermath in Québec, and the landscape of the Underground Railroad in the United States. These four series demonstrate how night photography offers a unique critical perspective on some of the most pressing problems of our age, and how these artists distance themselves from the predominantly diurnal register of documentary media.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2319
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Author Barentine, J.C.; Walker, C.E.; Kocifaj, M.; Kundracik, F.; Juan, A.; Kanemoto, J.; Monrad, C.K.
Title (up) Skyglow Changes Over Tucson, Arizona, Resulting From A Municipal LED Street Lighting Conversion Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 212 Issue Pages 10-23
Keywords Skyglow; Tucson; Arizona; LED; modeling; radiative transfer; LED
Abstract The transition from earlier lighting technologies to white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a significant change in the use of artificial light at night. LEDs emit considerably more short-wavelength light into the environment than earlier technologies on a per-lumen basis. Radiative transfer models predict increased skyglow over cities transitioning to LED unless the total lumen output of new lighting systems is reduced. The City of Tucson, Arizona (U.S.), recently converted its municipal street lighting system from a mixture of fully shielded high- and low-pressure sodium (HPS/LPS) luminaires to fully shielded 3000 K white LED luminaires. The lighting design intended to minimize increases to skyglow in order to protect the sites of nearby astronomical observatories without compromising public safety. This involved the migration of over 445 million fully shielded HPS/LPS lumens to roughly 142 million fully shielded 3000 K white LED lumens and an expected concomitant reduction in the amount of visual skyglow over Tucson. SkyGlow Simulator models predict skyglow decreases on the order of 10-20% depending on whether fully shielded or partly shielded lights are in use. We tested this prediction using visual night sky brightness estimates and luminance-calibrated, panchromatic all-sky imagery at 15 locations in and near the city. Data were obtained in 2014, before the LED conversion began, and in mid-2017 after approximately 95% of  ~18,000 luminaires was converted. Skyglow differed marginally, and in all cases with valid data changed by  <±20%. Over the same period, the city’s upward-directed optical radiance detected from Earth orbit decreased by approximately 7%. While these results are not conclusive, they suggest that LED conversions paired with dimming can reduce skyglow over cities.
Address International Dark-Sky Association, 3223 N 1st Ave, Tucson, AZ, 85719 USA; john(at)darksky.org
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Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1819
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