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Author Dominoni, D.M.; de Jong, M.; Bellingham, M.; O'Shaughnessy, P.; van Oers, K.; Robinson, J.; Smith, B.; Visser, M.E.; Helm, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dose-response effects of light at night on the reproductive physiology of great tits (Parus major): Integrating morphological analyses with candidate gene expression Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is increasingly recognized as a potential threat to wildlife and ecosystem health. Among the ecological effects of ALAN, changes in reproductive timing are frequently reported, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are still poorly understood. Here, we experimentally investigated these mechanisms by assessing dose-dependent photoperiodic responses to ALAN in the great tit (Parus major). We individually exposed photosensitive male birds to one of three nocturnal light levels (0.5, 1.5, and 5 lux), or to a dark control. Subsequent histological and molecular analyses on their testes indicated a dose-dependent reproductive response to ALAN. Specifically, different stages of gonadal growth were activated after exposure to different levels of light at night. mRNA transcript levels of genes linked to the development of germ cells (stra8 and spo11) were increased under 0.5 lux compared to the dark control. The 0.5 and 1.5 lux groups showed slight increases in testis size and transcript levels associated with steroid synthesis (lhr and hsd3b1) and spermatogenesis (fshr, wt1, sox9, and cldn11), although spermatogenesis was not detected in histological analysis. In contrast, all birds under 5 lux had 10 to 30 times larger testes than birds in all other groups, with a parallel strong increase in mRNA transcript levels and clear signs of spermatogenesis. Across treatments, the volume of the testes was generally a good predictor of testicular transcript levels. Overall, our findings indicate that even small changes in nocturnal light intensity can increase, or decrease, effects on the reproductive physiology of wild organisms.  
  Address GELIFES, Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30058288 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1964  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sanders, D.; Kehoe, R.; Cruse, D.; van Veen, F.J.F.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Low Levels of Artificial Light at Night Strengthen Top-Down Control in Insect Food Web Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 28 Issue 15 Pages 2474-2478.e3  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light has transformed the nighttime environment of large areas of the earth, with 88% of Europe and almost 50% of the United States experiencing light-polluted night skies [1]. The consequences for ecosystems range from exposure to high light intensities in the vicinity of direct light sources to the very widespread but lower lighting levels further away [2]. While it is known that species exhibit a range of physiological and behavioral responses to artificial nighttime lighting [e.g., 3-5], there is a need to gain a mechanistic understanding of whole ecological community impacts [6, 7], especially to different light intensities. Using a mesocosm field experiment with insect communities, we determined the impact of intensities of artificial light ranging from 0.1 to 100 lux on different trophic levels and interactions between species. Strikingly, we found the strongest impact at low levels of artificial lighting (0.1 to 5 lux), which led to a 1.8 times overall reduction in aphid densities. Mechanistically, artificial light at night increased the efficiency of parasitoid wasps in attacking aphids, with twice the parasitism rate under low light levels compared to unlit controls. However, at higher light levels, parasitoid wasps spent longer away from the aphid host plants, diminishing this increased efficiency. Therefore, aphids reached higher densities under increased light intensity as compared to low levels of lighting, where they were limited by higher parasitoid efficiency. Our study highlights the importance of different intensities of artificial light in driving the strength of species interactions and ecosystem functions.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30057304 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2518  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kumar, J.; Malik, S.; Bhardwaj, S.K.; Rani, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Bright light at night alters the perception of daylength in Indian weaver bird (Ploceus philippinus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol  
  Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 488-496  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The brighter nights have posed new challenges to the wild species by affecting their temporal physiology. The present study on Indian weaver bird (Ploceus philippinus) investigated if exposure to bright light at different phases of night affects their clock-mediated daily functions. Birds were placed individually in specially designed activity cages under short days and long nights (8L:16D; L = 100 lux, D < 0.1 lux) for approximately 3 weeks (19 days). Thereafter, they were divided into four groups (n = 6-9), and given approximately 2 lux light either for the entire night (ZT 08-24; zeitgeber time 0 = time of light on; pattern A) or for 4 hr (pattern B), placed in 16 hr night such that its onset coincides with the onset of night (early night group, ZT 08-12), its end with the end of night (late night group, ZT 20-24), or the night was interrupted in the middle (midnight group, ZT 14-18). The results showed that bright light in entire night induced early onset of day activity and fragmented rest at night, however, if given at different phases of night, it made the days longer by delaying end (early night group) or advancing onset of daily activity (late night group). It also suppressed the melatonin levels and increased body temperature. These results suggest that bright light at night alters the perception of daylength and affects the underlying physiology. The findings may be useful in adopting a strategy for use of night light without disturbing species fitness in their environment.  
  Address Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30043408 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1971  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mason, I.C.; Boubekri, M.; Figueiro, M.G.; Hasler, B.P.; Hattar, S.; Hill, S.M.; Nelson, R.J.; Sharkey, K.M.; Wright, K.P.; Boyd, W.A.; Brown, M.K.; Laposky, A.D.; Twery, M.J.; Zee, P.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Circadian Health and Light: A Report on the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Workshop Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume 33 Issue 5 Pages 451-457  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Despite the omnipresence of artificial and natural light exposure, there exists little guidance in the United States and elsewhere on light exposure in terms of timing, intensity, spectrum, and other light characteristics known to affect human health, performance, and well-being; in parallel, there is little information regarding the quantity and characteristics of light exposure that people receive. To address this, the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research, in the Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, held a workshop in August 2016 on circadian health and light. Workshop participants discussed scientific research advances on the effects of light on human physiology, identified remaining knowledge gaps in these research areas, and articulated opportunities to use appropriate lighting to protect and improve circadian-dependent health. Based on this workshop, participants put forth the following strategic intent, objectives, and strategies to guide discovery, measurement, education, and implementation of the appropriate use of light to achieve, promote, and maintain circadian health in modern society.  
  Address Center for Circadian and Sleep Medicine, Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30033850 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1975  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author El-Bakry, H.A.; Ismail, I.A.; Soliman, S.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Immunosenescence-like state is accelerated by constant light exposure and counteracted by melatonin or turmeric administration through DJ-1/Nrf2 and P53/Bax pathways Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology Abbreviated Journal J Photochem Photobiol B  
  Volume 186 Issue Pages 69-80  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The awareness of the interrelationship between immunosenescence and constant light exposure can provide new insights into the consequences of excessive exposure to light at night due to light pollution or shift work. Here, we investigated whether constant light exposure (LL) acts as an inducer of immunosenescence. We also determined the role of melatonin or turmeric in reversing the putative effects of constant light and explored for the first time the underlying molecular mechanisms. Young (3-4-month-old) rats were exposed daily to LL alone or in combination with each of melatonin and turmeric for 12weeks. A group of aged rats (18-months old; n=6) was used as a reference for natural immunosenescence. Constant light exposure resulted in remarkable pathophysiological alterations resembling those noticed in normal aged rats, manifested as apparent decreases in antioxidant activities as well as Nrf2 and DJ-1 expressions, striking augmentation in oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and expression of TNFalpha, Bax, and p53 genes, and deleterious changes of lymphoid organs, Co-administration of melatonin or turmeric was able to reverse all alterations induced by LL through upregulation of Nrf2/DJ-1 and downregulation of p53/Bax pathways. These data suggest that LL accelerates immunosenescence via oxidative stress and apoptotic pathways. They also demonstrate for the first time that turmeric is comparable to melatonin in boosting the immune function and counteracting the LL-associated immunosenescence. These effects suggest that turmeric supplementation can be used as an inexpensive intervention to prevent circadian disruption-related immunosenescence. However, to validate the effects of turmeric on humans further studies are warranted.  
  Address Department of Zoology & Entomology, Faculty of Science, Minia University, Egypt  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1011-1344 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30015062 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1984  
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