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Author Sanders, D.; Kehoe, R.; Cruse, D.; van Veen, F.J.F.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Low Levels of Artificial Light at Night Strengthen Top-Down Control in Insect Food Web Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume (down) 28 Issue 15 Pages 2474-2478.e3
Keywords Ecology; Animals
Abstract Artificial light has transformed the nighttime environment of large areas of the earth, with 88% of Europe and almost 50% of the United States experiencing light-polluted night skies [1]. The consequences for ecosystems range from exposure to high light intensities in the vicinity of direct light sources to the very widespread but lower lighting levels further away [2]. While it is known that species exhibit a range of physiological and behavioral responses to artificial nighttime lighting [e.g., 3-5], there is a need to gain a mechanistic understanding of whole ecological community impacts [6, 7], especially to different light intensities. Using a mesocosm field experiment with insect communities, we determined the impact of intensities of artificial light ranging from 0.1 to 100 lux on different trophic levels and interactions between species. Strikingly, we found the strongest impact at low levels of artificial lighting (0.1 to 5 lux), which led to a 1.8 times overall reduction in aphid densities. Mechanistically, artificial light at night increased the efficiency of parasitoid wasps in attacking aphids, with twice the parasitism rate under low light levels compared to unlit controls. However, at higher light levels, parasitoid wasps spent longer away from the aphid host plants, diminishing this increased efficiency. Therefore, aphids reached higher densities under increased light intensity as compared to low levels of lighting, where they were limited by higher parasitoid efficiency. Our study highlights the importance of different intensities of artificial light in driving the strength of species interactions and ecosystem functions.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK
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ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:30057304 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2518
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Author Grubisic, M.
Title Waters under Artificial Lights: Does Light Pollution Matter for Aquatic Primary Producers? Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 27 Issue 3 Pages 76-81
Keywords Ecology
Abstract Bright night lights have become a symbol of development and prosperity in the modern world. But have you ever wondered how artificial light at night (ALAN) may be affecting living beings in our cities, and how it may be affecting us? As artificial illumination is transforming nocturnal environments around the world, light pollution associated with its use is becoming a topic of increasing interest in the scientific and public communities. Light pollution disrupts natural light regimes in many regions of the world, raising concerns about ecological and health impacts of this novel anthropogenic pressure. Most obviously, ALAN can influence night‐active animals in urban and suburban areas, and most research in this growing field focuses on terrestrial organisms such as bats, birds, and insects. Effects on aquatic ecosystems are much less known. In particular, aquatic primary producers, such as microalgae, cyanobacteria, and plants, have rarely been studied despite their critical positioning in the base of aquatic food webs and the fundamental role that light plays in their ecology. For primary producers, light is a key source of both energy and environmental information; it influences their growth, production, and community structure. ALAN has therefore a large potential to influence their communities and induce bottom‐up changes to aquatic ecosystems and ecosystem functions.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1966
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Author Grenis, K.; Murphy, S.M.
Title Direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Insect Science Abbreviated Journal Insect Sci
Volume (down) 26 Issue 4 Pages 770-776
Keywords Animals; Plants
Abstract Light pollution is a global disturbance with resounding impacts on a wide variety of organisms, but our understanding of these impacts is restricted to relatively few higher vertebrate species. We tested the direct effects of light pollution on herbivore performance as well as indirect effects mediated by host plant quality. We found that artificial light from streetlights alters plant toughness. Additionally, we found evidence of both direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect, which indicates that streetlights can have cascading impacts on multiple trophic levels. Our novel findings suggest that light pollution can alter plant-insect interactions and thus may have important community-wide consequences.
Address Department of Biological Sciences, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1672-9609 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29425403 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1865
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Author Rybnikova, N.; Stevens, R.G.; Gregorio, D.I.; Samociuk, H.; Portnov, B.A.
Title Kernel density analysis reveals a halo pattern of breast cancer incidence in Connecticut Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Volume (down) 26 Issue Pages 143-151
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing
Abstract Breast cancer (BC) incidence rates in Connecticut are among the highest in the United States, and are unevenly distributed within the state. Our goal was to determine whether artificial light at night (ALAN) played a role. Using BC records obtained from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, we applied the double kernel density (DKD) estimator to produce a continuous relative risk surface of a disease throughout the State. A multi-variate analysis compared DKD and census track estimates with population density, fertility rate, percent of non-white population, population below poverty level, and ALAN levels. The analysis identified a “halo” geographic pattern of BC incidence, with the highest rates of the disease observed at distances 5-15 km from the state's major cities. The “halo” was of high-income communities, with high ALAN, located in suburban fringes of the state's main cities.
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ISSN 1877-5845 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1961
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Author Challéat, S.
Title Le socioécosystème environnement nocturne : un objet de recherche interdisciplinaire Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Natures Sciences Sociétés Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 26 Issue 3 Pages 257-269
Keywords Commentary; Review
Abstract Résumé

Cet article expose le cheminement par lequel nous constituons lʼenvironnement nocturne en objet de recherche interdisciplinaire. Apparue dans les années 1990 suite à la requalification environnementale de lʼéclairage urbain en pollution lumineuse, cette notion floue vise à appréhender les systèmes – humains ou non – fonctionnellement liés à la nuit et à lʼobscurité. En nous appuyant sur lʼobservation des processus de construction, de légitimation et de territorialisation de lʼenvironnement nocturne, nous montrons que cette notion opère une jonction entre différentes acceptions et approches fortement cloisonnées des rôles, fonctions et effets de lʼéclairage artificiel nocturne (ALAN, pour artificial light at night1). Nous proposons dʼaborder son étude suivant le cadre dʼanalyse des socioécosystèmes qui nécessite la mise en interaction des différentes approches de lʼALAN par les sciences de la société et les sciences du vivant.

Abstract

This paper explains the scientific reasoning that led us to institute the “night environment” as new interdisciplinary research topic from a social-ecological perspective. Sociocultural, ecological and health costs of artificial light at night (ALAN) have been gradually highlighted since the second half of the twentieth century in a range of scientific fields, from astronomy to medicine through ecology and energy. At the same time an environmentalist movement was emerging: the “dark-sky movement” which condemns “light pollution” and carries its demands within local, national or international arenas. In the 1990s, the requalification of urban lighting as light pollution gave rise to the ill-defined notion of night environment. This notion aims to understand the systems, both human and non-human, that are functionally related to the night and darkness. Building on medium and long-term observations of the processes of construction, legitimation and territorialization of the nocturnal environment, we demonstrate that this notion enables to establish a junction between the different strongly compartmentalized meanings and approaches of the roles, functions and effects of ALAN, and more specifically of urban lighting. We propose to approach its study based on the social-ecological systems framework. This requires creating strong interactions between the different approaches of ALAN: those of the social sciences and those of the experimental, life and health sciences.
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Language French Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2317
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