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Author Davies, T.W.; Smyth, T.
Title Why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume (down) 24 Issue 3 Pages 872-882
Keywords Commentary; Animals; Plants
Abstract The environmental impacts of artificial light at night have been a rapidly growing field of global change science in recent years. Yet, light pollution has not achieved parity with other global change phenomena in the level of concern and interest it receives from the scientific community, government and nongovernmental organizations. This is despite the globally widespread, expanding and changing nature of night-time lighting and the immediacy, severity and phylogenetic breath of its impacts. In this opinion piece, we evidence 10 reasons why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century. Our reasons extend beyond those concerned principally with the environment, to also include impacts on human health, culture and biodiversity conservation more generally. We conclude that the growing use of night-time lighting will continue to raise numerous ecological, human health and cultural issues, but that opportunities exist to mitigate its impacts by combining novel technologies with sound scientific evidence. The potential gains from appropriate management extend far beyond those for the environment, indeed it may play a key role in transitioning towards a more sustainable society.
Address Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, Devon, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29124824 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2054
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Author Masri, S.; Sassone-Corsi, P.
Title The emerging link between cancer, metabolism, and circadian rhythms Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Nature Medicine Abbreviated Journal Nat Med
Volume (down) 24 Issue 12 Pages 1795-1803
Keywords Human Health; Review
Abstract The circadian clock is a complex cellular mechanism that, through the control of diverse metabolic and gene expression pathways, governs a large array of cyclic physiological processes. Epidemiological and clinical data reveal a connection between the disruption of circadian rhythms and cancer that is supported by recent preclinical data. In addition, results from animal models and molecular studies underscore emerging links between cancer metabolism and the circadian clock. This has implications for therapeutic approaches, and we discuss the possible design of chronopharmacological strategies.
Address Department of Biological Chemistry, Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism, INSERM U1233, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA. psc@uci.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1078-8956 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30523327 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2135
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Author Stone, T.
Title The Value of Darkness: A Moral Framework for Urban Nighttime Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Science and Engineering Ethics Abbreviated Journal Sci Eng Ethics
Volume (down) 24 Issue 2 Pages 607-628
Keywords Darkness; Society
Abstract The adverse effects of artificial nighttime lighting, known as light pollution, are emerging as an important environmental issue. To address these effects, current scientific research focuses mainly on identifying what is bad or undesirable about certain types and uses of lighting at night. This paper adopts a value-sensitive approach, focusing instead on what is good about darkness at night. In doing so, it offers a first comprehensive analysis of the environmental value of darkness at night from within applied ethics. A design for values orientation is utilized to conceptualize, define, and categorize the ways in which value is derived from darkness. Nine values are identified and categorized via their type of good, temporal outlook, and spatial characteristics. Furthermore, these nine values are translated into prima facie moral obligations that should be incorporated into future design choices, policy-making, and innovations to nighttime lighting. Thus, the value of darkness is analyzed with the practical goal of informing future decision-making about urban nighttime lighting.
Address Ethics and Philosophy of Technology Section, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX, Delft, The Netherlands. t.w.stone@tudelft.nl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1353-3452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28597220; PMCID:PMC5876417 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2225
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Author McKenna, H.; van der Horst, G.T.J.; Reiss, I.; Martin, D.
Title Clinical chronobiology: a timely consideration in critical care medicine Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Critical Care (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Crit Care
Volume (down) 22 Issue 1 Pages 124
Keywords Human Health; Review
Abstract A fundamental aspect of human physiology is its cyclical nature over a 24-h period, a feature conserved across most life on Earth. Organisms compartmentalise processes with respect to time in order to promote survival, in a manner that mirrors the rotation of the planet and accompanying diurnal cycles of light and darkness. The influence of circadian rhythms can no longer be overlooked in clinical settings; this review provides intensivists with an up-to-date understanding of the burgeoning field of chronobiology, and suggests ways to incorporate these concepts into daily practice to improve patient outcomes. We outline the function of molecular clocks in remote tissues, which adjust cellular and global physiological function according to the time of day, and the potential clinical advantages to keeping in time with them. We highlight the consequences of “chronopathology”, when this harmony is lost, and the risk factors for this condition in critically ill patients. We introduce the concept of “chronofitness” as a new target in the treatment of critical illness: preserving the internal synchronisation of clocks in different tissues, as well as external synchronisation with the environment. We describe methods for monitoring circadian rhythms in a clinical setting, and how this technology may be used for identifying optimal time windows for interventions, or to alert the physician to a critical deterioration of circadian rhythmicity. We suggest a chronobiological approach to critical illness, involving multicomponent strategies to promote chronofitness (chronobundles), and further investment in the development of personalised, time-based treatment for critically ill patients.
Address Critical Care Unit, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London, NW3 2QG, UK. daniel.martin@ucl.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1364-8535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29747699 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1897
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Author Griepentrog, J.E.; Labiner, H.E.; Gunn, S.R.; Rosengart, M.R.
Title Bright environmental light improves the sleepiness of nightshift ICU nurses Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Critical Care (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Crit Care
Volume (down) 22 Issue 1 Pages 295
Keywords Circadian; Light; Night shift; Nurse; Shift work sleep disorder
Abstract BACKGROUND: Shift work can disturb circadian homeostasis and result in fatigue, excessive sleepiness, and reduced quality of life. Light therapy has been shown to impart positive effects in night shift workers. We sought to determine whether or not prolonged exposure to bright light during a night shift reduces sleepiness and enhances psychomotor performance among ICU nurses.

METHODS: This is a single-center randomized, crossover clinical trial at a surgical trauma ICU. ICU nurses working a night shift were exposed to a 10-h period of high illuminance (1500-2000 lx) white light compared to standard ambient fluorescent lighting of the hospital. They then completed the Stanford Sleepiness Scale and the Psychomotor Vigilance Test. The primary and secondary endpoints were analyzed using the paired t test. A p value <0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS: A total of 43 matched pairs completed both lighting exposures and were analyzed. When exposed to high illuminance lighting subjects experienced reduced sleepiness scores on the Stanford Sleepiness Scale than when exposed to standard hospital lighting: mean (sem) 2.6 (0.2) vs. 3.0 (0.2), p = 0.03. However, they committed more psychomotor errors: 2.3 (0.2) vs. 1.7 (0.2), p = 0.03.

CONCLUSIONS: A bright lighting environment for ICU nurses working the night shift reduces sleepiness but increases the number of psychomotor errors.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03331822 . Retrospectively registered on 6 November 2017.
Address Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. rosengartmr@upmc.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1364-8535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30424793 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2070
Permanent link to this record