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Author Underhill, V.A.; Höbel, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mate choice behavior of female Eastern Gray Treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) is robust to anthropogenic light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Ethology Abbreviated Journal Ethology  
  Volume (down) 124 Issue 8 Pages 537-548  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Human activities are drastically changing the amount of artificial light entering natural habitats. Because light pollution alters the sensory environment, it may interfere with behaviors ranging from prey detection and vigilance to mate choice. Here, we test the hypothesis that anthropogenic light pollution affects the mate choice behavior of female Eastern Gray Treefrogs (Hyla versicolor). We tested this hypothesis under two experimental light treatments that simulate the light pollution created by streetlights (expansion of lit areas and increased light intensity), and the light pollution created by headlights of passing vehicles (rapid fluctuations between bright and dark conditions). The hypothesis predicts that females tested under conditions simulating light pollution will show behavioral changes geared toward mitigating detection by predators, such as relaxed preferences, decreased choosiness for the normally preferred call, and differences in approach behavior (either more directional, faster, or stealthier movements, or no approach at all). Contrary to our prediction, we found that light pollution did not affect mate choice behavior in Gray Treefrogs, and should therefore neither interfere with population persistence nor affect the sexual selection regimes on male call traits of this species. However, we caution that this result does not imply that anthropogenic light pollution is of no concern for amphibian conservation, because behavioral responses to variation in nocturnal light levels (both in the natural as well as anthropogenically enhanced range) seem to be highly species‐specific in anurans. We encourage additional studies to help gage the vulnerability of anurans to anthropogenic light pollution.  
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  ISSN 0179-1613 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2090  
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Author Wood, J.M.; Isoardi, G.; Black, A.; Cowling, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-time driving visibility associated with LED streetlight dimming Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume (down) 121 Issue Pages 295-300  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract New LED streetlighting designs and dimming are being introduced worldwide, however, while their cost savings are well established, their impact on driving performance has received little attention. This study investigated the effect of streetlight dimming on night-time driving performance. Participants included 14 licensed drivers (mean age 34.2 +/- 4.9 years, range 27-40 years) who drove an instrumented vehicle around a closed circuit at night. Six LED streetlights were positioned along a 250 m, straight section and their light output varied between laps (dimming levels of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of maximum output; L25, L50, L75 and L100 respectively; at 100% average road surface luminance of 1.14 cd/m(2)). Driving tasks involved recognition distances and reaction times to a low contrast, moving target and a pedestrian walking at the roadside. Participants drove at an average driving speed of 55 km/hr in the streetlight zone. Streetlight dimming significantly delayed driver reaction times to the moving target (F3,13.06 = 6.404; p = 0.007); with an average 0.4 s delay in reaction times under L25 compared to L100, (estimated reduction in recognition distances of 6 m). Pedestrian recognition distances were significantly shorter under dimmed streetlight levels (F3,12.75 = 8.27; p = 0.003); average pedestrian recognition distances were 15 m shorter under L25 compared to L100, and 11 m shorter under L50 compared to L100. These data suggest that streetlight dimming impacts on driver visibility but it is unclear how these differences impact on safety; future studies are required to inform decisions on safe dimming levels for road networks.  
  Address School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30317014 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2160  
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Author Kersavage, K.; Skinner, N.P.; Bullough, J.D.; Garvey, P.M.; Donnell, E.T.; Rea, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Investigation of flashing and intensity characteristics for vehicle-mounted warning beacons Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Accident Analysis & Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention  
  Volume (down) 119 Issue Pages 23-28  
  Keywords Security; Public Safety; Lighting  
  Abstract Reducing the potential for crashes involving front line service workers and passing vehicles is important for increasing worker safety in work zones and similar locations. Flashing yellow warning beacons are often used to protect, delineate, and provide visual information to drivers within and approaching work zones. A nighttime field study using simulated workers, with and without reflective vests, present outside trucks was conducted to evaluate the effects of different warning beacon intensities and flash frequencies. Interactions between intensity and flash frequency were also analyzed. This study determined that intensitiesof 25/2.5 cd and 150/15 cd (peak/trough intensity) provided the farthest detection distances of the simulated worker. Mean detection distances in response to a flash frequency of 1 Hz were not statistically different from those in response to 4 Hz flashing. Simulated workers wearing reflective vests were seen the farthest distances away from the trucks for all combinations of intensity and flash frequency.  
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  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1950  
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Author Johns, L.E.; Jones, M.E.; Schoemaker, M.J.; McFadden, E.; Ashworth, A.; Swerdlow, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Domestic light at night and breast cancer risk: a prospective analysis of 105 000 UK women in the Generations Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication British Journal of Cancer Abbreviated Journal Br J Cancer  
  Volume (down) 118 Issue Pages 600-606  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Circadian disruption caused by exposure to light at night (LAN) has been proposed as a risk factor for breast cancer and a reason for secular increases in incidence. Studies to date have largely been ecological or case-control in design and findings have been mixed. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between LAN and breast cancer risk in the UK Generations Study. Bedroom light levels and sleeping patterns at age 20 and at study recruitment were obtained by questionnaire. Analyses were conducted on 105 866 participants with no prior history of breast cancer. During an average of 6.1 years of follow-up, 1775 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs), adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: There was no association between LAN level and breast cancer risk overall (highest compared with lowest LAN level at recruitment: HR=1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.15), or for invasive (HR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.85-1.13) or in situ (HR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.83-1.11) breast cancer, or oestrogen-receptor (ER) positive (HR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.84-1.14); or negative (HR=1.16, 95% CI: 0.82-1.65) tumours separately. The findings did not differ by menopausal status. Adjusting for sleep duration, sleeping at unusual times (non-peak sleep) and history of night work did not affect the results. Night waking with exposure to light, occurring around age 20, was associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer (HR for breast cancer overall=0.74, 95% CI: 0.55-0.99; HR for ER-positive breast cancer=0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective cohort analysis of LAN, there was no evidence that LAN exposure increased the risk of subsequent breast cancer, although the suggestion of a lower breast cancer risk in pre-menopausal women with a history of night waking in their twenties may warrant further investigation.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 23 January 2018; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.359 www.bjcancer.com.  
  Address Division of Breast Cancer Research, The Institute of Cancer Research, London SW3 6JB, UK  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-0920 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29360812 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1803  
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Author Mortazavi, S.M.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comment on 'Domestic light at night and breast cancer risk: a prospective analysis of 105 000 UK women in the Generations Study' Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication British Journal of Cancer Abbreviated Journal Br J Cancer  
  Volume (down) 118 Issue 11 Pages 1536  
  Keywords Commentary  
  Abstract  
  Address Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. S.M.Javad.Mortazavi@fccc.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-0920 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29769746 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1911  
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