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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Lewis, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night causes top-down and bottom-up trophic effects on invertebrate populations Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume (down) 55 Issue 6 Pages 2698-2706  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals; Plants  
  Abstract Globally, many ecosystems are exposed to artificial light at night. Nighttime lighting has direct biological impacts on species at all trophic levels. However, the effects of artificial light on biotic interactions remain, for the most part, to be determined.

We exposed experimental mesocosms containing combinations of grassland plants and invertebrate herbivores and predators to illumination at night over a 3‐year period to simulate conditions under different common forms of street lighting.

We demonstrate both top‐down (predation‐controlled) and bottom‐up (resource‐controlled) impacts of artificial light at night in grassland communities. The impacts on invertebrate herbivore abundance were wavelength‐dependent and mediated via other trophic levels.

White LED lighting decreased the abundance of a generalist herbivore mollusc by 55% in the presence of a visual predator, but not in its absence, while monochromatic amber light (with a peak wavelength similar to low‐pressure sodium lighting) decreased abundance of a specialist herbivore aphid (by 17%) by reducing the cover and flower abundance of its main food plant in the system. Artificial white light also significantly increased the food plant's foliar carbon to nitrogen ratio.

We conclude that exposure to artificial light at night can trigger ecological effects spanning trophic levels, and that the nature of such impacts depends on the wavelengths emitted by the lighting technology employed.

Policy implications. Our results confirm that artificial light at night, at illuminance levels similar to roadside vegetation, can have population effects mediated by both top‐down and bottom‐up effects on ecosystems. Given the increasing ubiquity of light pollution at night, these impacts may be widespread in the environment. These results underline the importance of minimizing ecosystem disruption by reducing light pollution in natural and seminatural ecosystems.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2086  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Wakefield, A.; Broyles, M.; Stone, E.L.; Harris, S.; Jones, G.; Minderman, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantifying the attractiveness of broad-spectrum street lights to aerial nocturnal insects Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume (down) 55 Issue 2 Pages 714-722  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Sodium street lights, dominated by long wavelengths of light, are being replaced by broad‐spectrum, white lights globally, in particular light‐emitting diodes (LEDs). These white lights typically require less energy to operate and are therefore considered “eco‐friendly”. However, little attention has been paid to the impacts white lights may have upon local wildlife populations.

We compared insect attraction to orange (high‐pressure sodium, HPS) and white (metal halide, MH and LED) street lights experimentally using portable street lights and custom‐made flight intercept traps.

Significantly more (greater than five times as many) insects were attracted to white MH street lights than white (4,250 K) LED and HPS lights. There was no statistical difference in the numbers of insects attracted to LED and HPS lights for most taxa caught. However, rarefaction shows a greater diversity of insects caught at LED than HPS lights.

Policy implications. With the current, large‐scale conversion to white light‐emitting diode (LED) lighting, our results give insight into how changes to street light technology may affect wildlife populations and communities. We recommend avoiding metal halide light installations as they attract many more insects than competing technologies. We highlight the need to tailor LED lighting to prevent disturbances across multiple insect taxa.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2224  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mulvin, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Media Prophylaxis: Night Modes and the Politics of Preventing Harm Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Information & Culture Abbreviated Journal Information & Culture  
  Volume (down) 53 Issue 2 Pages 175-202  
  Keywords Human Health; Society  
  Abstract This article develops the term “media prophylaxis” to analyze the ways technologies are applied to challenges of calibrating one’s body with its environment and as defenses against endemic, human-made harms. In recent years, self-illuminated screens (like those of computers, phones, and tablets) have been identified by scientists, journalists, and concerned individuals as particularly pernicious sources of sleep-disrupting light. By tracing the history of circadian research, the effects of light on sleep patterns, and the recent appearance of software like “f.lux,” Apple’s “Night Shift,” and “Twilight,” this article shows how media-prophylactic technologies can individualize responsibility for preventing harm while simultaneously surfacing otherwise ignored forms of chronic suffering.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2164-8034 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1853  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mulvin, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Media Prophylaxis: Night Modes and the Politics of Preventing Harm Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Information & Culture Abbreviated Journal Information & Culture  
  Volume (down) 53 Issue 2 Pages 175-202  
  Keywords History; Lighting; Society  
  Abstract This article develops the term “media prophylaxis” to analyze the ways technologies are applied to challenges of calibrating one’s body with its environment and as defenses against endemic, human-made harms. In recent years, self-illuminated screens (like those of computers, phones, and tablets) have been identified by scientists, journalists, and concerned individuals as particularly pernicious sources of sleep-disrupting light. By tracing the history of circadian research, the effects of light on sleep patterns, and the recent appearance of software like “f.lux,” Apple’s “Night Shift,” and “Twilight,” this article shows how media-prophylactic technologies can individualize responsibility for preventing harm while simultaneously surfacing otherwise ignored forms of chronic suffering.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2164-8034 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1917  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Point, S. doi  openurl
  Title Blue Light Hazard: are exposure limit values protective enough for newborn infants? Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Radioprotection Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 53 Issue 3 Pages 219-224  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Blue Light Hazard is an emerging concern for health of population. Nevertheless, acute exposure to blue rays from artificial light is well taken into account by normative requirements applicable to lamps engineering and risk for general population is low. There is also no evidence for a chronic effect of artificial lighting on retina for general population at radiance below exposure limit values. That said, children in the very first years of life constitute a specific population to consider. On one side, eye anatomy of very young infants is different from elder young people or adults. On the other side, infants can be in close contact with some luminous toys or night lights. This paper presents a first approach for taking into account the specific anatomy of newborn infants’ eyes in blue light hazard evaluation. Results show that differences of crystalline lens transparency, focal length and pupil diameter could induce a significantly higher retinal exposure than for adult.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1982  
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