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Author Hoyos-Díaz, J. M., Villalba-Alemán, E., Ramoni-Perazzi, P., & Muñoz-Romo, M.
Title Impact of artificial lighting on capture success in two species of frugivorous bats (chiroptera: phyllostomidae) in an urban locality from the Venezuelan Andes Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Mastozoologia Neotropical Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 25 Issue 2 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light is becoming a major issue for bats because it affects critical activities such as foraging, reproduction, and communication. We assessed the effect of artificial lighting on Artibeus lituratus and Artibeus jamaicensis in a small secondary growth forest patch near a street subjected to unexpected illumination. Bats were captured in the forest patch using a 12-m long mist net. Results indicated a nearly six-fold, significant decrease in capture success after the street lamps were installed. Artificial light from street lamps functions as a “light barrier” that inhibits bats from conducting short and long-distance movements, which might have detrimental consequences for bats and the plants they disperse. RESUMEN. Impacto de la luz artificial en el éxito de captura de dos especies de murciélagos frugívoros (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) en una localidad urbana de Los Andes venezolanos. La luz artificial se ha convertido en un problema grave para los murciélagos, porque está afectando actividades críticas que incluyen forrajeo, reproducción y comunicación. Evaluamos el efecto de la luz artificial en los murciélagos frugívoros Artibeus lituratus y Artibeus jamaicensis, en un pequeño parche de bosque secundario, cercano a una calle sujeta a una iluminación artificial inesperada. Capturamos a los murciélagos en el bosque secundario, empleando una red de neblina de 12 m de longitud. Los resultados indican que el éxito de captura disminuyó significativamente casi seis veces después de la instalación de los bombillos. La luz artificial de las lámparas funciona como “barreras u obstáculos de luz” que inhiben a los murciélagos de realizar movimientos de corta y larga distancia, lo cual podría tener consecuencias perjudiciales para los murciélagos y las plantas que ellos dispersan.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2318
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Author Koen, E.L.; Minnaar, C.; Roever, C.L.; Boyles, J.G.
Title Emerging threat of the 21(st) century lightscape to global biodiversity Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume (down) 24 Issue 6 Pages 2315-2324
Keywords Animals; Ecology; Remote Sensing
Abstract Over the last century the temporal and spatial distribution of light on Earth has been drastically altered by human activity. Despite mounting evidence of detrimental effects of light pollution on organisms and their trophic interactions, the extent to which light pollution threatens biodiversity on a global scale remains unclear. We assessed the spatial extent and magnitude of light encroachment by measuring change in the extent of light using satellite imagery from 1992 to 2012 relative to species richness for terrestrial and freshwater mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The encroachment of light into previously dark areas was consistently high, often doubling, in areas of high species richness for all four groups. This pattern persisted for nocturnal groups (e.g., bats, owls, and geckos) and species considered vulnerable to extinction. Areas with high species richness and large increases in light extent were clustered within newly industrialized regions where expansion of light is likely to continue unabated unless we act to conserve remaining darkness. Implementing change at a global scale requires global public, and therefore scientific, support. Here, we offer substantial evidence that light extent is increasing where biodiversity is high, representing an emerging threat to global biodiversity requiring immediate attention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Center for Ecology and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, 62901, USA
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ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29575356 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1833
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Author Davies, T.W.; Smyth, T.
Title Why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume (down) 24 Issue 3 Pages 872-882
Keywords Commentary; Animals; Plants
Abstract The environmental impacts of artificial light at night have been a rapidly growing field of global change science in recent years. Yet, light pollution has not achieved parity with other global change phenomena in the level of concern and interest it receives from the scientific community, government and nongovernmental organizations. This is despite the globally widespread, expanding and changing nature of night-time lighting and the immediacy, severity and phylogenetic breath of its impacts. In this opinion piece, we evidence 10 reasons why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century. Our reasons extend beyond those concerned principally with the environment, to also include impacts on human health, culture and biodiversity conservation more generally. We conclude that the growing use of night-time lighting will continue to raise numerous ecological, human health and cultural issues, but that opportunities exist to mitigate its impacts by combining novel technologies with sound scientific evidence. The potential gains from appropriate management extend far beyond those for the environment, indeed it may play a key role in transitioning towards a more sustainable society.
Address Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, Devon, UK
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ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:29124824 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2054
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Author Masri, S.; Sassone-Corsi, P.
Title The emerging link between cancer, metabolism, and circadian rhythms Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Nature Medicine Abbreviated Journal Nat Med
Volume (down) 24 Issue 12 Pages 1795-1803
Keywords Human Health; Review
Abstract The circadian clock is a complex cellular mechanism that, through the control of diverse metabolic and gene expression pathways, governs a large array of cyclic physiological processes. Epidemiological and clinical data reveal a connection between the disruption of circadian rhythms and cancer that is supported by recent preclinical data. In addition, results from animal models and molecular studies underscore emerging links between cancer metabolism and the circadian clock. This has implications for therapeutic approaches, and we discuss the possible design of chronopharmacological strategies.
Address Department of Biological Chemistry, Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism, INSERM U1233, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA. psc@uci.edu
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ISSN 1078-8956 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:30523327 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2135
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Author Stone, T.
Title The Value of Darkness: A Moral Framework for Urban Nighttime Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Science and Engineering Ethics Abbreviated Journal Sci Eng Ethics
Volume (down) 24 Issue 2 Pages 607-628
Keywords Darkness; Society
Abstract The adverse effects of artificial nighttime lighting, known as light pollution, are emerging as an important environmental issue. To address these effects, current scientific research focuses mainly on identifying what is bad or undesirable about certain types and uses of lighting at night. This paper adopts a value-sensitive approach, focusing instead on what is good about darkness at night. In doing so, it offers a first comprehensive analysis of the environmental value of darkness at night from within applied ethics. A design for values orientation is utilized to conceptualize, define, and categorize the ways in which value is derived from darkness. Nine values are identified and categorized via their type of good, temporal outlook, and spatial characteristics. Furthermore, these nine values are translated into prima facie moral obligations that should be incorporated into future design choices, policy-making, and innovations to nighttime lighting. Thus, the value of darkness is analyzed with the practical goal of informing future decision-making about urban nighttime lighting.
Address Ethics and Philosophy of Technology Section, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX, Delft, The Netherlands. t.w.stone@tudelft.nl
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1353-3452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28597220; PMCID:PMC5876417 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2225
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