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Author Rodríguez Martín, A.; Holmberg, R.; Dann, P.; Chiaradia, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Penguin colony attendance under artificial lights for ecotourism Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol  
  Volume (down) 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 457-464  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Wildlife watching is an emerging ecotourism activity around the world. In Australia and New Zealand, night viewing of little penguins attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors per year. As penguins start coming ashore after sunset, artificial lighting is essential to allow visitors to view them in the dark. This alteration of the nightscape warrants investigation for any potential effects of artificial lighting on penguin behavior. We experimentally tested how penguins respond to different light wavelengths (colors) and intensities to examine effects on the colony attendance behavior at two sites on Phillip Island, Australia. At one site, nocturnal artificial illumination has been used for penguin viewing for decades, whereas at the other site, the only light is from the natural night sky. Light intensity did not affect colony attendance behaviors of penguins at the artificially lit site, probably due to penguin habituation to lights. At the not previously lit site, penguins preferred lit paths over dark paths to reach their nests. Thus, artificial light might enhance penguin vision at night and consequently it might reduce predation risk and energetic costs of locomotion through obstacle and path detection. Although penguins are faithful to their path, they can be drawn to artificial lights at small spatial scale, so light pollution could attract penguins to undesirable lit areas. When artificial lighting is required, we recommend keeping lighting as dim and time-restricted as possible to mitigate any negative effects on the behavior of penguins and their natural habitat.  
  Address Research Department, Phillip Island Nature Parks, Cowes, Victoria, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29603671 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1834  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sanders, D.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How ecological communities respond to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol  
  Volume (down) 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 394-400  
  Keywords Ecology  
  Abstract Many ecosystems worldwide are exposed to artificial light at night (ALAN), from streetlights and other sources, and a wide range of organisms has been shown to respond to this anthropogenic pressure. This raises concerns about the consequences for major ecosystem functions and their stability. However, there is limited understanding of how whole ecological communities respond to ALAN, and this cannot be gained simply by making predictions from observed single species physiological, behavioral, or ecological responses. Research needs to include an important building block of ecological communities, namely the interactions between species that drive ecological and evolutionary processes in ecosystems. Here, we summarize current knowledge about community responses to ALAN and illustrate different pathways and their impact on ecosystem functioning and stability. We discuss that documentation of the impact of ALAN on species interaction networks and trait distributions provides useful tools to link changes in community structure to ecosystem functions. Finally, we suggest several approaches to advance research that will link the diverse impact of ALAN to changes in ecosystems.  
  Address Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin, Institute for Advanced Study, Berlin, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29656458 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1857  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Dimovski, A.M.; Robert, K.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light pollution: Shifting spectral wavelengths to mitigate physiological and health consequences in a nocturnal marsupial mammal Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol  
  Volume (down) 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 497-505  
  Keywords Animals; Lighting  
  Abstract The focus of sustainable lighting tends to be on reduced CO2 emissions and cost savings, but not on the wider environmental effects. Ironically, the introduction of energy-efficient lighting, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), may be having a great impact on the health of wildlife. These white LEDs are generated with a high content of short-wavelength 'blue' light. While light of any kind can suppress melatonin and the physiological processes it regulates, these short wavelengths are potent suppressors of melatonin. Here, we manipulated the spectral composition of LED lights and tested their capacity to mitigate the physiological and health consequences associated with their use. We experimentally investigated the impact of white LEDs (peak wavelength 448 nm; mean irradiance 2.87 W/m(2) ), long-wavelength shifted amber LEDs (peak wavelength 605 nm; mean irradiance 2.00 W/m(2) ), and no lighting (irradiance from sky glow < 0.37 x 10(-3) W/m(2) ), on melatonin production, lipid peroxidation, and circulating antioxidant capacity in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Night-time melatonin and oxidative status were determined at baseline and again following 10 weeks exposure to light treatments. White LED exposed wallabies had significantly suppressed nocturnal melatonin compared to no light and amber LED exposed wallabies, while there was no difference in lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant capacity declined from baseline to week 10 under all treatments. These results provide further evidence that short-wavelength light at night is a potent suppressor of nocturnal melatonin. Importantly, we also illustrate that shifting the spectral output to longer wavelengths could mitigate these negative physiological impacts.  
  Address Department of Ecology, Environment and Evolution, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29722167 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1888  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author McLay, L.K.; Nagarajan-Radha, V.; Green, M.P.; Jones, T.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim artificial light at night affects mating, reproductive output, and reactive oxygen species in Drosophila melanogaster Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol  
  Volume (down) 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 419-428  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Humans are lighting the night-time environment with ever increasing extent and intensity, resulting in a variety of negative ecological effects in individuals and populations. Effects of light at night on reproductive fitness traits are demonstrated across taxa however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are largely untested. One possible mechanism is that light at night may result in perturbed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress levels. Here, we reared Drosophila melanogaster under either dim (10 lx) light or no light (0 lx) at night for three generations and then compared mating and lifetime oviposition patterns. In a second experiment, we explored whether exposure to light at night treatments resulted in variation in ROS levels in the heads and ovaries of six, 23- and 36-day-old females. We demonstrate that dim light at night affects mating and reproductive output: 10 lx flies courted for longer prior to mating, and female oviposition patterns differed to 0 lx females. ROS levels were lower in the ovaries but not heads, of 10 lx compared with 0 lx females. We suggest that reduced ROS levels may reflect changes in ovarian physiology and cell signaling, which may be related to the differences observed in oviposition patterns. Taken together, our results indicate negative consequences for invertebrates under more stressful, urban, lit conditions and further investigation into the mechanisms driving these changes is warranted to manage invertebrate communities in a brighter future.  
  Address School of BioSciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29733537 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1889  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Alaasam, V.J.; Duncan, R.; Casagrande, S.; Davies, S.; Sidher, A.; Seymoure, B.; Shen, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Ouyang, J.Q. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light at night disrupts nocturnal rest and elevates glucocorticoids at cool color temperatures Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol  
  Volume (down) 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 465-472  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Nighttime light pollution is quickly becoming a pervasive, global concern. Since the invention and proliferation of light-emitting diodes (LED), it has become common for consumers to select from a range of color temperatures of light with varying spectra. Yet, the biological impacts of these different spectra on organisms remain unclear. We tested if nighttime illumination of LEDs, at two commercially available color temperatures (3000 and 5000 K) and at ecologically relevant illumination levels affected body condition, food intake, locomotor activity, and glucocorticoid levels in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We found that individuals exposed to 5000 K light had higher rates of nighttime activity (peaking after 1 week of treatment) compared to 3000 K light and controls (no nighttime light). Birds in the 5000 K treatment group also had increased corticosterone levels from pretreatment levels compared to 3000 K and control groups but no changes in body condition or food intake. Individuals that were active during the night did not consequently decrease daytime activity. This study adds to the growing evidence that the spectrum of artificial light at night is important, and we advocate the use of nighttime lighting with warmer color temperatures of 3000 K instead of 5000 K to decrease energetic costs for avian taxa.  
  Address Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29766666 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1909  
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