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Blask, D. E., Dauchy, R. T., Dauchy, E. M., Mao, L., Hill, S. M., Greene, M. W., et al. (2014). Light exposure at night disrupts host/cancer circadian regulatory dynamics: Impact on the Warburg effect, lipid signaling and tumor growth prevention. PloS one, 9(8), e102776.
Abstract: The central circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) plays an important role in temporally organizing and coordinating many of the processes governing cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth in synchrony with the daily light/dark cycle which may contribute to endogenous cancer prevention. Bioenergetic substrates and molecular intermediates required for building tumor biomass each day are derived from both aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) and lipid metabolism. Using tissue-isolated human breast cancer xenografts grown in nude rats, we determined that circulating systemic factors in the host and the Warburg effect, linoleic acid uptake/metabolism and growth signaling activities in the tumor are dynamically regulated, coordinated and integrated within circadian time structure over a 24-hour light/dark cycle by SCN-driven nocturnal pineal production of the anticancer hormone melatonin. Dim light at night (LAN)-induced melatonin suppression disrupts this circadian-regulated host/cancer balance among several important cancer preventative signaling mechanisms, leading to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the host and runaway aerobic glycolysis, lipid signaling and proliferative activity in the tumor.
Dauchy, R. T., Dauchy, E. M., Tirrell, R. P., Hill, C. R., Davidson, L. K., Greene, M. W., et al. (2010). Dark-phase light contamination disrupts circadian rhythms in plasma measures of endocrine physiology and metabolism in rats. Comparative Medicine, 60(5), 348–356.
Abstract: Dark-phase light contamination can significantly disrupt chronobiologic rhythms, thereby potentially altering the endocrine physiology and metabolism of experimental animals and influencing the outcome of scientific investigations. We sought to determine whether exposure to low-level light contamination during the dark phase influenced the normally entrained circadian rhythms of various substances in plasma. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were housed in photobiologic light-exposure chambers configured to create 1) a 12:12-h light:dark cycle without dark-phase light contamination (control condition; 123 μW/cm(2), lights on at 0600), 2) experimental exposure to a low level of light during the 12-h dark phase (with 0.02, 0.05, 0.06, or 0.08 μW/cm(2) light at night), or 3) constant bright light (123 μW/cm(2)). Dietary and water intakes were recorded daily. After 2 wk, rats underwent 6 low-volume blood draws at 4-h intervals (beginning at 0400) during both the light and dark phases. Circadian rhythms in dietary and water intake and levels of plasma total fatty acids and lipid fractions remained entrained during exposure to either control conditions or low-intensity light during the dark phase. However, these patterns were disrupted in rats exposed to constant bright light. Circadian patterns of plasma melatonin, glucose, lactic acid, and corticosterone were maintained in all rats except those exposed to constant bright light or the highest level of light during the dark phase. Therefore even minimal light contamination during the dark phase can disrupt normal circadian rhythms of endocrine metabolism and physiology and may alter the outcome of scientific investigations.