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Labuda, M., Koch, R., & Nagyová, A. (2015). “Dark Sky Parks” as measure to support nature tourism in large protection areas – case study in the Nature Park “Nossentiner/Schwinzer Heide”. Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung, 47(12), 380–388.
Abstract: Some of the key characteristics of environmentally compatible. tourism are the minimisation of negative impacts on the environment and the preservation of the ecological capacity. “Dark Sky Parks” are one of the important measures to support nature tourism in large protection areas. Using the example of the Nature Park “Nossentiner/Schwinzer Heide” the paper introduces a concept of 'astrotourism': measurements of the brightness (magnitude) of the nocturnal sky, selection of suitable sites for astronomic observations, development of a lighting plan which mainly aims to define rules and guidelines for the outdoor lighting, and measures to protect the nocturnal sky and reduce the light pollution in the future Dark Sky Park. The region of the Nature Park Nossentiner/Schwinzer Heide is characterised by a minor light pollution, due to a low settlement density and its large, coherent forest areas. This fact contributes to the protection of nocturnal species and it can be used for the future tourism concept in the protection area. The presented concept to develop nature tourism shows a reaction on one of the fastest environmental changes: the decreasing intensity of natural darkness due to artificial light sources.
Lazar, M. (2010). Shedding Light on the Global Distribution of Economic Activity. Togeogj, 3(1), 147–160.
Abstract: Collection of data on economic variables, especially sub-national income levels, is problematic, due to various shortcomings in the data collection process. Additionally, the informal economy is often excluded from official statistics. Nighttime lights satellite imagery and the LandScan population grid provide an alternative means for measuring economic activity. We have developed a model for creating a disaggregated map of estimated total (formal plus informal) economic activity for countries and states of the world. Regression models were developed to calibrate the sum of lights to official measures of economic activity at the sub-national level for China, India, Mexico, and the United States and at the national level for other countries of the world, and subsequently unique coefficients were derived. Multiplying the unique coefficients with the sum of lights provided estimates of total economic activity, which were spatially distributed to generate a spatially disaggregated 1 km2 map of total economic activity.
Letu, H., Tana, G., Hara, M., & Nishio, F. (2011). Monitoring the electric power consumption by lighting from DMSP/OLS nighttime satellite imagery. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2011 IEEE International, , 2113–2116.
Abstract: In this study, we attempted to estimate the electric power consumption using the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)/Operational Linescan System (OLS) stable light imagery after correction for saturation effected. Digital numbers (DNs) of a stable light image are saturated in the center of city areas. Thus, we developed a saturated light correction method for the DMSP/OLS stable light image using the radiance calibration image of DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery. The comparison between the stable light image for 1999 and the radiance calibration image for 1996-1997 in major areas of Japan showed a strong linear correlation (Ysta = 17Xrad 102) between the DNs of both images. Saturated DNs of the stable light image could therefore be corrected based on the correlation equation between the two images. To estimate the electric power consumption, regression analysis was performed between statistic data of electric power consumption from lighting and cumulative DNs of the stable light image before and after correcting for the saturation effects using the new and the conventional methods of the cubic regression equation (CRE). There is a stronger improvement of the determination coefficient with the new saturated light correction method (R =0.91, P=4.5Â·106<;0.05) than with the conventional method (R2=0.81, P=2.6-106<;0.05) from the initial correlation with the uncorrected data (R2=0.70, P=1.7-106<;0.05).
Lockwood, R., Selwyn, T., & Morgan-Taylor, M. (2011). A review of local authority road lighting initiatives aimed at reducing costs, carbon emissions and light pollution. Report to Defra, UK, .
Abstract: This review of local authority road lighting initiatives was commissioned by Defraâs
Statutory Nuisance team in response to one of the recommendations contained in the
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollutionâs (RCEP) report âArtificial Light in the
Environmentâ. The RCEP report made reference to road lighting trials being undertaken by
local authorities in the UK that have been reducing or turning road lights off. This report
has been produced following a review of fifteen out of twenty five such initiatives identified
in England and Wales.
The overall aim of the review was to examine the local authority road lighting trials and
initiatives and draw out the lessons learnt.
Local authorities have implemented these initiatives in response to economic pressures
such as rising energy prices and environmental concerns about wasted energy and the
effects of carbon emissions and light pollution. Changes have been made to the way they
deliver public road lighting services by:
 switching selected road lights off;
 lighting roads for part of the night only;
 dimming the level of lighting during the early hours of the morning;
 reducing the âburningâ time of lamps in the evening and early morning; and / or
 using new and evolving technologies such as a central management system (CMS) or
light emitting diodes (LED).
These initiatives have the potential to provide a range of benefits including substantial
financial savings to local authorities, reduced carbon emissions and reduced light pollution.
However, the benefits need to be considered in the context of the important role that road
lighting plays in terms of assisting traffic safety and helping to reduce crime. Local
authorities have needed to carefully consider the impacts of proposed changes on these
issues and adopt appropriate management strategies prior to, during and post
implementation. These strategies have included the use of measures such as exemption
criteria, risk assessments and active engagement with stakeholders.
From this review, it is evident that there are a range of options and tools available to local
authorities as they consider how best to respond to the growing economic and
environmental pressures on the way they deliver their public road lighting services.
It is hoped that the information contained within this report may inform local authorities
which face similar challenges in the future, in identifying some of the key issues that may
affect their particular public road lighting service and assist in the process of implementing
changes appropriate to their circumstances.
Long, X., Tie, X., Zhou, J., Dai, W., Li, X., Feng, T., et al. (2019). Impact of the Green Light Program on haze in the North China Plain, China. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19(17), 11185–11197.
Abstract: As the world's largest developing country, China has undergone ever-increasing demand for electricity during the past few decades. In 1996, China launched the Green Light Program (GLP), which became a national energy conservation activity for saving lighting electricity as well as an effective reduction of the coal consumption for power generation. Despite the great success of the GLP, its effects on haze have not been investigated and well understood. This study focused on assessing the potential coal saving induced by the improvement of luminous efficacy, the core of the GLP, and on estimating the consequent effects on the haze in the North China Plain (NCP), where a large number of power plants are located and are often engulfed by severe haze. The estimated potential coal saving induced by the GLP can reach a massive value of 120–323 million tons, accounting for 6.7 %–18.0 % of the total coal consumption for thermal power generation in China. There was a massive potential emission reduction of air pollutants from thermal power generation in the NCP, which was estimated to be 20.0–53.8 Gg for NOx and 6.9–18.7 Gg for SO2 in December 2015. The potential emission reduction induced by the GLP plays important roles in the haze formation, because the NOx and SO2 are important precursors for the formation of particles. To assess the impact of the GLP on haze, sensitivity studies were conducted by applying a regional chemical–dynamical model (WRF-CHEM). The model results suggest that in the case of lower-limit emission reduction, the PM2.5 concentration decreased by 2–5 µg m−3 in large areas of the NCP. In the case of upper-limit emission reduction, there was much more remarkable decrease in PM2.5 concentration (4–10 µg m−3). This study is a good example to illustrate that scientific innovation can induce important benefits for environment issues such as haze.