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Semeniuk, K. (Ed.). (2014). Gazing Up: An Exploration of Municipal Night Lighting Practices Amongst Six Canadian Municipalities. Master's thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario.
Abstract: Light pollution is broadly defined as the unnecessary illumination of the nocturnal environment. Light pollution is a pervasive phenomena shown to have harmful consequences for both the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem. While some municipalities have begun to address the environmental and economic costs of light pollution, most have not. The goal of this study was to investigate current municipal night lighting practices for six selected Canadian municipalities with the aim of determining their policies and practices for night lighting. Semi-structured interviews with key informants were conducted and analyzed using a mixed methods approach that included a thorough literature review. The results indicate that rising energy costs, aging infrastructure and the lighting industry are driving the majority of changes taking place in adapting municipalities while most municipalities remain content with status quo. The research conducted led to guideline improvements for municipal night lighting in todayâs municipalities.
Fuller, G. (Ed.). (2013). The Night Shift: Lighting and Nocturnal Strepsirrhine Care in Zoos. Ph.D. thesis, , .
Abstract: Over billions of years of evolution, light from the sun, moon, and stars has provided
organisms with reliable information about the passage of time. Photic cues entrain
the circadian system, allowing animals to perform behaviors critical for survival and
reproduction at optimal times. Modern artificial lighting has drastically altered
environmental light cues. Evidence is accumulating that exposure to light at night
(particularly blue wavelengths) from computer screens, urban light pollution, or as
an occupational hazard of night-shift work has major implications for human health.
Nocturnal animals are the shift workers of zoos; they are generally housed on
reversed light cycles so that daytime visitors can observe their active behaviors. As a
result, they are exposed to artificial light throughout their subjective night. The goal
of this investigation was to examine critically the care of nocturnal strepsirrhine
primates in North American zoos, focusing on lorises (Loris and Nycticebus spp.) and pottos (Perodicticus potto). The general hypothesis was that exhibit lighting design affects activity patterns and circadian physiology in nocturnal strepsirrhines. The
first specific aim was to assess the status of these populations. A multi-institutional husbandry survey revealed little consensus among zoos in lighting design, with both red and blue light commonly used for nocturnal illumination. A review of medical records also revealed high rates of neonate mortality. The second aim was to
develop methods for measuring the effects of exhibit lighting on behavior and
health. The use of actigraphy for automated activity monitoring was explored.
Methods were also developed for measuring salivary melatonin and cortisol as
indicators of circadian disruption. Finally, a multi-institutional study was conducted
comparing behavioral and endocrine responses to red and blue dark phase lighting.
These results showed greater activity levels in strepsirrhines housed under red light than blue. Salivary melatonin concentrations in pottos suggested that blue light
suppressed nocturnal melatonin production at higher intensities, but evidence for
circadian disruption was equivocal. These results add to the growing body of
evidence on the detrimental effects of blue light at night and are a step towards
empirical recommendations for nocturnal lighting design in zoos.
Snyder, J. D., Bullough, J. D., & Radetsky, L. C. (2013). Innovative Roadway Light Source and Dye Combinations to Improve Visibility and Reduce Environmental Impacts. National Technical Information Service report, .
Zhou, H., Hawkins, H. G., & Miles, J. D. (2013). Guidelines for Freeway Lighting Curfews. Technical Report No. FHWA/TX-13/0-6645-1, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, , Ã¡-72.
Arnold, G., Mellinger, D., Markowitz, P., Burke, M., & Lahar, D. (2012). A Win-Win-Win for Municipal Street Lighting: Converting Two-Thirds of Vermont's Street Lights to LED by 2014. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy., .
Abstract: Reducing energy costs and enhancing the nighttime environment with LED street lighting
is by now well understood. However, few municipalities and utilities have successfully taken
advantage of this opportunity to convert their street lighting operations to LEDs. Before a
system-wide conversion of existing street lights can occur, a utility must obtain the large amount
of required capital, identify appropriate LED street light equipment for their applications,
consider changes in utility rate structures, and design effective methods for recovering costs.
Using Vermont as a case study, this paper presents a partnership model among the statewide
energy efficiency utility, the stateâs largest electric utilities, and several municipalities. The
model was designed to overcome the challenges to widespread LED street light conversion. By
2014, more than two-thirds of Vermontâs municipal street lights will be upgraded to LED
technology. The conversion will: (1) provide municipalities with better nighttime street lighting
and significant cost savingsâat no additional capital expense to the municipalities, (2) deliver
8,000 MWh of cost-effective new savings to the energy efficiency utility, and (3) deliver
financially attractive returns for Vermontâs utilities. This win-win-win model is scalable and
replicable, and is now being considered in Massachusetts and Rhode Island