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Ceola, S., Montanari, A., Parajka, J., Viglione, A., BlÃ¶schl, G., & Laio, F. (2016). Human signatures derived from nighttime lights along the Eastern Alpine river network in Austria and Italy.. International Association of Hydrological Sciences.
Abstract: Understanding how human settlements and economic activities are distributed with reference to the geographical location of streams and rivers is of fundamental relevance for several issues, such as flood risk management, drought management related to increased water demands by human population, fluvial ecosystem services, water pollution and water exploitation. Besides the spatial distribution, the evolution in time of the human presence constitutes an additional key question. This work aims at understanding and analysing the spatial and temporal evolution of human settlements and associated economic activity, derived from nighttime lights, in the Eastern Alpine region. Nightlights, available at a fine spatial resolution and for a 22-year period, constitute an
excellent data base, which allows one to explore in details human signatures. In this experiment, nightlights are associated to five distinct distance-from-river classes. Our results clearly point out an overall enhancement of human presence across the considered distance classes during the last 22 years, though presenting some differences among the study regions. In particular, the river network delineation, by considering different groups of river pixels based on the Strahler order, is found to play a central role in the identification of nightlight spatio-temporal trends.
Nam, S., Park, S. - E., & Shin, H. - C. (2015). Accessing the economic value of night view of bridge using contingent valuation method: the case of South Korea's Han-River bridge. Int. J. of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Res., 9(3), 360–370.
The purpose of this study is to estimate an individualâ€™s probability of preservation the night view of Han-River Bridge at tax using the CVM; and to present the effects of 4Es on experience economy theory.
The on-site survey was conducted in the 11 district Han-river parks; Gwangnaru, Jamsil, Ttukseom, Jamwon, Banpo, Yeechon, Yeouido, Mangwon, Nanji, Ganseo and Yanghwa district including 24 bridge ssuch as Banpo, Olympic Bridge during the 8-9pm around the lighting and 9-10pm peak time of lighting.
Truncated mean WTP indicates that the economic value of the night view of Han-River Bridge is 49,575 won (about U.S. $50) per household, which implies the significance of the preservation value of the night view.
This study sets a hypothetical market and there are limitations on hypothetical bias of the DC CVM. For the future study, a survey with a specific real payment vehicle in an attempt to reduce hypothetical bias can be a tool for the prevention of the overestimation.
Through the study, Seoul city has to invest aggressively on the night view landscape business of Han River bridge, which can become a landmark and lots of attraction effect of tourists. Since this studyâ€™s core aim was to justify the economic value of the night-view of the Han-River bridges, the estimated amount strongly supports the lighting business of the Han-River bridge.
The results of this research may help policy makers of Han-River to establish practical decision whether improving and preserving the Han-Riverâ€™s night view lighting business are worth the value.
Perkin, E. K., Hölker, F., & Tockner, K. (2014). The effects of artificial lighting on adult aquatic and terrestrial insects. Freshw Biol, 59(2), 368–377.
Abstract: There is a growing concern that artificial light might affect local insect populations and disrupt their dispersal across the landscape. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effect of artificial light on flying insects in the field, with an emphasis on aquatic insects. We asked whether lights prevented the ability of insects to disperse across the landscape, a process that is crucial in colonising restored habitats.
We set up six, c. 3.5 m high downward facing high-pressure sodium streetlights along a permanently connected oxbow in the Spree River of eastern Germany. We collected insects using 12 flight intercept traps, each with trays at three different heights (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m), placed at distances 0, 3, 40 and 75 m from the lights and 5, 8 and 80 m from water. The number of emerging aquatic insects in the study area was measured with six emergence traps. We emptied the traps 22 times between June and September 2010; the lights were on for 11 of these nights and off for the other 11.
In total, we caught almost 27 times as many insects at traps 0 m from the lights when the lights were on than when they were off. Most insects caught when the lights were on were aquatic, with Diptera being the most common order. Furthermore, the proportion of aquatic insects caught at traps 0, 3 and 40 m from the lights when they were on was significantly higher than when they were off. On lit nights, more aquatic insects were captured per hour and m2 (area in which flying insects were intercepted) at traps 0 m from the lights than emerged from per square metre per hour from the Spree River.
Our results suggest that adult aquatic insects can be negatively affected by artificial light and that city planners should take this into account when designing lighting systems along rivers.
Picchi, M. S., Avolio, L., Azzani, L., Brombin, O., & Camerini, G. (2013). Fireflies and land use in an urban landscape: the case of Luciola italica L. (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in the city of Turin. J Insect Conserv, 17(4), 797–805.
Abstract: Research was carried out in the city of Turin (Northern Italy) in order to assess the suitability of the urban environment for fireflies.The study started in 2007 with an artistic and scientific project promoted by Parco Arte Vivente (PAVâPark of living art). Citizens joining the project recorded 18 areas where they could observe fireflies, which were identified as Luciola italica L. (Coleoptera Lampyridae). All of the 18 areas recorded by citizens were then visited during the summer of 2009 and the abundance of L. italica was estimated using transects. In 12 sites the presence of the firefly was confirmed. The habitat structures of L. italica were woods interspersed with clearings in the urban districts in the hills, and parks along rivers in the lower and more populated part of the city. In sites where fireflies were observed, the level of illuminance measured was significantly lower than in areas where L. italica was absent. The analysis of the landscape around the study areas showed a negative correlation between the extent of urbanization and fireflies abundance. Survival of L. italica populations in the urban area of Turin is influenced by the extent of green areas and the level of artificial illumination. Parks lying among rivers preserve a level of darkness suitable for fireflies and are connected by woody strips growing along the banks of rivers, that probably function as ecological corridors.