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Babaii, A., Adib-Hajbaghery, M., & Hajibagheri, A. (2015). Effect of Using Eye Mask on Sleep Quality in Cardiac Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nursing and Midwifery Studies, 4(4).
Patients in coronary care unit are at risk of sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation can be associated with increased blood pressure and heart rate, raising the risk of developing cardiovascular problems among patients hospitalized in coronary care unit.
This study was carried out to examine the effect of eye mask on sleep quality in cardiac patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria were selected using a convenient sampling method and randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups. Patients in the control group received routine care. However, in the experimental group, patients received routine care and eye mask for three subsequent nights. In the both groups, the sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Data were analyzed by the chi-square test, independent samples t-test, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests.
After the study, the median scores of the subjective sleep quality, the sleep latency, the sleep duration, the habitual sleep efficiency, and the sleep disturbances domains, as well as the median score of overall Pittsburgh sleep quality index in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the use of sleep medications and the daytime dysfunction domains (P > 0.05).
Using eye mask can significantly improve the sleep quality in cardiac patients. Therefore, nurses are recommended to use eye mask in combination with current treatments for improving patients' sleep quality.
Peregrym, M., Kónya E. P., & Vasyliuk, O. (2018). The impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on the National Nature Parks, Biosphere and Naturе Reserves of the Steppe Zone and Crimean Mountains within Ukraine. Palaearctic Grasslands, .
Abstract: Artificial light at night (ALAN) and sky glow are a recognized anthropogenic pressure, but the consequences of this pressure on protected areas within Ukraine are unclear. This research attempted to estimate the level of light pollution on the protected territories of the National Nature Parks (NNPs), Biosphere and Nature Reserves in the Steppe Zone and Crimea Mountains of Ukraine. Kmz layers of
these protected territories and the New World Atlas of Artificial Sky Brightness, through Google Earth Pro, were used to calculate the level of artificial sky brightness for 15 NNPs, three Biosphere Reserves and 10 Nature Reserves. The results show that even some of the most protected areas within the Steppe Zone and Crimean Mountains are impacted by ALAN. Of the studied protected areas 44.2% have a natural dark night sky, 40.1% have artificial brightness ranging between 8 and 16%, and the remainder (15.7%) are polluted with an artificial brightness greater than 16%. Areas with light pollution greater than 16% are often situated near big cities or industrial centers. It was noted that light pollution levels were not taken into account during the creation of any protected areas within Ukraine.
Lee, S., Matsumori, K., Nishimura, K., Nishimura, Y., Ikeda, Y., Eto, T., & Higuchi, S. (2018). Melatonin suppression and sleepiness in children exposed to blue-enriched white LED lighting at night. Physiological Reports, 6(24).
Abstract: Light-induced melatonin suppression in children is reported to be more sensitive to white light at night than that in adults; however, it is unclear whether it depends on spectral distribution of lighting. In this study, we investigated the effects of different color temperatures of LED lighting on children’s melatonin secretion during the night. Twenty-two healthy children (8.9 2.2 years old) and 20 adults (41.7 4.4 years old) participated in this
study. A between-subjects design with four combinations, including two age
groups (adults and children) and the two color temperature conditions
(3000 K and 6200 K), was used. The experiment was conducted for two consecutive nights. On the first night, saliva samples were collected every hour
under a dim light condition (<30 lx). On the second night, the participants
were exposed to either color temperature condition. Melatonin suppression in
children was greater than that in adults at both 3000 K and 6200 K condition.
The 6200 K condition resulted in greater melatonin suppression than did the
3000 K condition in children (P < 0.05) but not in adults. Subjective sleepiness in children exposed to 6200 K light was significantly lower than that in
children exposed to 3000 K light. In children, blue-enriched LED lighting has
a greater impact on melatonin suppression and it inhibits the increase in
sleepiness during night. Light with a low color temperature is recommended
at night, particularly for children’s sleep and circadian rhythm.
Lee, H. (2018). Do We Use Artificial Light Appropriately? Psychiatry Investigation, 15(12).
Windle, A. E., Hooley, D. S., & Johnston, D. W. (2018). Robotic Vehicles Enable High-Resolution Light Pollution Sampling of Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5(493).
Abstract: Nesting sea turtles appear to avoid brightly lit beaches and often turn back to sea prematurely when exposed to artificial light. Observations and experiments have noted that nesting turtles prefer darker areas where buildings and high dunes act as light barriers. As a result, sea turtles often nest on darker beaches, creating spatial concentrations of nests. Artificial nighttime light, or light pollution, has been quantified using a variety of methods. However, it has proven challenging to make accurate measurements of ambient light at fine scales and on smaller nesting beaches. Additionally, light has traditionally been measured from stationary tripods perpendicular to beach vegetation, disregarding the point of view of a nesting sea turtle. In the present study, nighttime ambient light conditions were assessed on three beaches in central North Carolina: a developed coastline of a barrier island, a nearby State Park on the same barrier island comprised of protected and undeveloped land, and a completely uninhabited wilderness on an adjacent barrier island in the Cape Lookout National Seashore. Using an autonomous terrestrial rover, high resolution light measurements (mag/arcsec2) were collected every minute with two ambient light sensors along transects on each beach. Spatial comparisons between ambient light and nesting density at and between these locations reveal that highest densities of nests occur in regions with lowest light levels, supporting the hypothesis that light pollution from coastal development may influence turtle nesting distribution. These results can be used to support ongoing management strategies to mitigate this pressing conservation issue.