Abstract: For countless centuries, people have looked up at the night sky in awe and wonder. However, the starry night skies have been increasingly subsumed by ambient light from cities. Many urban areas across the world are over illuminated, leaving city dwellers unable to take in the natural day-night pattern of the skies. This disruption is not merely a setback for stargazers; excessive lighting from city streets can have an adverse impact on wildlife and human welfare. Sea turtle hatchlings, which instinctively crawl towards the night sky to reach the safety of the ocean, may be enticed by the stronger
glow of nearby streetlights. Artificial lights also steer migratory bird species off course and interfere with their ability to detect ideal conditions for nesting.
1 Overly bright lighting in residential areas can disrupt human sleeping
habits as well. These impacts associated with excess lighting
show that cities have an important role to play in regulating