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Snyder, J. D., Bullough, J. D., & Radetsky, L. C. (2013). Innovative Roadway Light Source and Dye Combinations to Improve Visibility and Reduce Environmental Impacts. National Technical Information Service report, .
Zhou, H., Hawkins, H. G., & Miles, J. D. (2013). Guidelines for Freeway Lighting Curfews. Technical Report No. FHWA/TX-13/0-6645-1, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, , Ã¡-72.
Arnold, G., Mellinger, D., Markowitz, P., Burke, M., & Lahar, D. (2012). A Win-Win-Win for Municipal Street Lighting: Converting Two-Thirds of Vermont's Street Lights to LED by 2014. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy., .
Abstract: Reducing energy costs and enhancing the nighttime environment with LED street lighting
is by now well understood. However, few municipalities and utilities have successfully taken
advantage of this opportunity to convert their street lighting operations to LEDs. Before a
system-wide conversion of existing street lights can occur, a utility must obtain the large amount
of required capital, identify appropriate LED street light equipment for their applications,
consider changes in utility rate structures, and design effective methods for recovering costs.
Using Vermont as a case study, this paper presents a partnership model among the statewide
energy efficiency utility, the stateâs largest electric utilities, and several municipalities. The
model was designed to overcome the challenges to widespread LED street light conversion. By
2014, more than two-thirds of Vermontâs municipal street lights will be upgraded to LED
technology. The conversion will: (1) provide municipalities with better nighttime street lighting
and significant cost savingsâat no additional capital expense to the municipalities, (2) deliver
8,000 MWh of cost-effective new savings to the energy efficiency utility, and (3) deliver
financially attractive returns for Vermontâs utilities. This win-win-win model is scalable and
replicable, and is now being considered in Massachusetts and Rhode Island
Pantoni, R., Fonseca, C., & BrandÃ£o, D. (2012). Street Lighting System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks. Chapter 16 in Energy Efficiency – The Innovative Ways for Smart Energy, the Future Towards Modern Utilities, M Eissa ed., .
Marchant, P. R. (2011). Have new street lighting schemes reduced crime in London? Radical Statistics, (104), 39–48.
Abstract: Crime counts published by the Home Office for the Metropolitan Police
Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership areas have been collated
across the years 2003-2009. The crime counts over time have been
modelled taking into account the âmultilevelâ (years within areas)
nature of the data. The key variable of interest, as a predictor of
within-area change of crime, is the proportion of a Core Investment
Period of new Private Finance Initiative street lighting which had been
completed up to the given time point as a predictor of within area
change of crime. The final model gave a 95% confidence interval for
the multiplier by which the number of crimes is increased of (0.87,
1.11), for a fully implemented lighting programme, consistent with