Nordhaus, W., & Chen, X. (2012). Improved Estimates of Using Luminosity as a Proxy for Economic Statistics: New Results and Estimates of Precision. Cowles Foundation Discussion Paper, (1857).
Abstract: Previous work has analyzed whether luminosity data contain useful information for estimating economic output and concluded that there was significant promise for regions with poor quality economic statistics. The present paper examines alternative measures of the precision of the estimates using bootstrap and prior estimates of the errors for both the luminosity quality and the national accounts quality. Based on the new results, we conclude: First, for countries with high quality systems, there is no reason to use luminosity data as a supplement to standard data in any context where standard data are available. Second, we find that there is no advantage at present of using lights data for time-series corrections for any purposes where standard data are available. Third, for countries with low quality statistical systems, the estimates suggest that there may be substantial information in the luminosity data for cross-sectional estimates of output. Fourth, the major concerns about the use of lights as a proxy involve uncertainties about the precision of standard national accounts data. Finally, we recommend that future work be concentrated on integrating luminosity data into the cross sectional estimates of national and regional output primarily for countries with poor quality statistical systems.
Elvidge, C. D., Sutton, P. C., Anderson, S., Baugh, K. E., & Ziskin, D. (2011). Satellite Observation of Urban Metabolism. earthzine, .
Lockwood, R., Selwyn, T., & Morgan-Taylor, M. (2011). A review of local authority road lighting initiatives aimed at reducing costs, carbon emissions and light pollution. Report to Defra, UK, .
Abstract: This review of local authority road lighting initiatives was commissioned by Defraâs
Statutory Nuisance team in response to one of the recommendations contained in the
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollutionâs (RCEP) report âArtificial Light in the
Environmentâ. The RCEP report made reference to road lighting trials being undertaken by
local authorities in the UK that have been reducing or turning road lights off. This report
has been produced following a review of fifteen out of twenty five such initiatives identified
in England and Wales.
The overall aim of the review was to examine the local authority road lighting trials and
initiatives and draw out the lessons learnt.
Local authorities have implemented these initiatives in response to economic pressures
such as rising energy prices and environmental concerns about wasted energy and the
effects of carbon emissions and light pollution. Changes have been made to the way they
deliver public road lighting services by:
 switching selected road lights off;
 lighting roads for part of the night only;
 dimming the level of lighting during the early hours of the morning;
 reducing the âburningâ time of lamps in the evening and early morning; and / or
 using new and evolving technologies such as a central management system (CMS) or
light emitting diodes (LED).
These initiatives have the potential to provide a range of benefits including substantial
financial savings to local authorities, reduced carbon emissions and reduced light pollution.
However, the benefits need to be considered in the context of the important role that road
lighting plays in terms of assisting traffic safety and helping to reduce crime. Local
authorities have needed to carefully consider the impacts of proposed changes on these
issues and adopt appropriate management strategies prior to, during and post
implementation. These strategies have included the use of measures such as exemption
criteria, risk assessments and active engagement with stakeholders.
From this review, it is evident that there are a range of options and tools available to local
authorities as they consider how best to respond to the growing economic and
environmental pressures on the way they deliver their public road lighting services.
It is hoped that the information contained within this report may inform local authorities
which face similar challenges in the future, in identifying some of the key issues that may
affect their particular public road lighting service and assist in the process of implementing
changes appropriate to their circumstances.
Snyder, J. D., Bullough, J. D., & Radetsky, L. C. (2013). Innovative Roadway Light Source and Dye Combinations to Improve Visibility and Reduce Environmental Impacts. National Technical Information Service report, .
Arnold, G., Mellinger, D., Markowitz, P., Burke, M., & Lahar, D. (2012). A Win-Win-Win for Municipal Street Lighting: Converting Two-Thirds of Vermont's Street Lights to LED by 2014. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy., .
Abstract: Reducing energy costs and enhancing the nighttime environment with LED street lighting
is by now well understood. However, few municipalities and utilities have successfully taken
advantage of this opportunity to convert their street lighting operations to LEDs. Before a
system-wide conversion of existing street lights can occur, a utility must obtain the large amount
of required capital, identify appropriate LED street light equipment for their applications,
consider changes in utility rate structures, and design effective methods for recovering costs.
Using Vermont as a case study, this paper presents a partnership model among the statewide
energy efficiency utility, the stateâs largest electric utilities, and several municipalities. The
model was designed to overcome the challenges to widespread LED street light conversion. By
2014, more than two-thirds of Vermontâs municipal street lights will be upgraded to LED
technology. The conversion will: (1) provide municipalities with better nighttime street lighting
and significant cost savingsâat no additional capital expense to the municipalities, (2) deliver
8,000 MWh of cost-effective new savings to the energy efficiency utility, and (3) deliver
financially attractive returns for Vermontâs utilities. This win-win-win model is scalable and
replicable, and is now being considered in Massachusetts and Rhode Island