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Lockwood, R., Selwyn, T., & Morgan-Taylor, M. (2011). A review of local authority road lighting initiatives aimed at reducing costs, carbon emissions and light pollution. Report to Defra, UK, .
Abstract: This review of local authority road lighting initiatives was commissioned by Defraâs
Statutory Nuisance team in response to one of the recommendations contained in the
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollutionâs (RCEP) report âArtificial Light in the
Environmentâ. The RCEP report made reference to road lighting trials being undertaken by
local authorities in the UK that have been reducing or turning road lights off. This report
has been produced following a review of fifteen out of twenty five such initiatives identified
in England and Wales.
The overall aim of the review was to examine the local authority road lighting trials and
initiatives and draw out the lessons learnt.
Local authorities have implemented these initiatives in response to economic pressures
such as rising energy prices and environmental concerns about wasted energy and the
effects of carbon emissions and light pollution. Changes have been made to the way they
deliver public road lighting services by:
 switching selected road lights off;
 lighting roads for part of the night only;
 dimming the level of lighting during the early hours of the morning;
 reducing the âburningâ time of lamps in the evening and early morning; and / or
 using new and evolving technologies such as a central management system (CMS) or
light emitting diodes (LED).
These initiatives have the potential to provide a range of benefits including substantial
financial savings to local authorities, reduced carbon emissions and reduced light pollution.
However, the benefits need to be considered in the context of the important role that road
lighting plays in terms of assisting traffic safety and helping to reduce crime. Local
authorities have needed to carefully consider the impacts of proposed changes on these
issues and adopt appropriate management strategies prior to, during and post
implementation. These strategies have included the use of measures such as exemption
criteria, risk assessments and active engagement with stakeholders.
From this review, it is evident that there are a range of options and tools available to local
authorities as they consider how best to respond to the growing economic and
environmental pressures on the way they deliver their public road lighting services.
It is hoped that the information contained within this report may inform local authorities
which face similar challenges in the future, in identifying some of the key issues that may
affect their particular public road lighting service and assist in the process of implementing
changes appropriate to their circumstances.
Zhifeng, L., Chunyang, H., & Yang, Y. (2011). Mapping urban areas by performing systematic correction for DMSP/OLS Nighttime Lights Time Series in China from 1992 to 2008. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2011 IEEE International, , 1858–1861.
Abstract: The stable lights data in the Version 4 Nighttime Lights Time Series Dataset gained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Line-scan System can't be used to map urban areas directly because the data has no on board calibration and many unstable lights are also included in the data. So the systematic correction was performed before the urban areas extraction according to the characteristic of stable lights data in China from 1992 to 2008 with the 1 km spatial resolution. It was found that, with systematic correction, the stable lights data could be strictly comparable from one year to the next, in which the remarkable differences of digital number values and the unstable lights were removed effectively. Besides, the urban areas extracted from the stable lights data could be used to describe the real process of urban expansion in China from 1992 to 2008.
Fouquet, R., & Pearson, P. J. (2006). Seven centuries of energy services: The price and use of light in the United Kingdom (1300-2000). Energy Journal, 27, 139–177.
Abstract: Before the mid-eighteenth century, most people lived in near-complete
darkness except in the presence of sunlight and moonlight. Since then, the provision
of artificial light has been revolutionised by a series of innovations in appliances,
fuels, infrastructures and institutions that have enabled the growing demands of
economic development for artificial light to be met at dramatically lower costs:
by the year 2000, while United Kingdom GDP per capita was 15 times its 1800
value, lighting services cost less than one three thousandth of their 1800 value,
per capita use was 6,500 times greater and total lighting consumption was 25,000
times higher than in 1800. The economic history of light shows how focussing on
developments in energy service provision rather than simply on energy use and
prices can reveal the âtrueâ declines in costs, enhanced levels of consumption
and welfare gains that have been achieved. While emphasising the value of past
experience, the paper also warns against the dangers of over-reliance on past
trends for the long-run forecasting of energy consumption given the potential for the
introduction of new technologies and fuels, and for rebound and saturation effects.
Doll, C. N. H., Muller, J., & Elvidge, C. D. (2000). Night-time Imagery as a Tool for Global Mapping of Socioeconomic Parameters and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Ambio, 29(3), 157–162.
Snyder, J. D., Bullough, J. D., & Radetsky, L. C. (2013). Innovative Roadway Light Source and Dye Combinations to Improve Visibility and Reduce Environmental Impacts. National Technical Information Service report, .