Zhou, H., Hawkins, H. G., & Miles, J. D. (2013). Guidelines for Freeway Lighting Curfews. Technical Report No. FHWA/TX-13/0-6645-1, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, , Ã¡-72.
Arnold, G., Mellinger, D., Markowitz, P., Burke, M., & Lahar, D. (2012). A Win-Win-Win for Municipal Street Lighting: Converting Two-Thirds of Vermont's Street Lights to LED by 2014. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy., .
Abstract: Reducing energy costs and enhancing the nighttime environment with LED street lighting
is by now well understood. However, few municipalities and utilities have successfully taken
advantage of this opportunity to convert their street lighting operations to LEDs. Before a
system-wide conversion of existing street lights can occur, a utility must obtain the large amount
of required capital, identify appropriate LED street light equipment for their applications,
consider changes in utility rate structures, and design effective methods for recovering costs.
Using Vermont as a case study, this paper presents a partnership model among the statewide
energy efficiency utility, the stateâs largest electric utilities, and several municipalities. The
model was designed to overcome the challenges to widespread LED street light conversion. By
2014, more than two-thirds of Vermontâs municipal street lights will be upgraded to LED
technology. The conversion will: (1) provide municipalities with better nighttime street lighting
and significant cost savingsâat no additional capital expense to the municipalities, (2) deliver
8,000 MWh of cost-effective new savings to the energy efficiency utility, and (3) deliver
financially attractive returns for Vermontâs utilities. This win-win-win model is scalable and
replicable, and is now being considered in Massachusetts and Rhode Island
Pantoni, R., Fonseca, C., & BrandÃ£o, D. (2012). Street Lighting System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks. Chapter 16 in Energy Efficiency – The Innovative Ways for Smart Energy, the Future Towards Modern Utilities, M Eissa ed., .
Marchant, P. R. (2011). Have new street lighting schemes reduced crime in London? Radical Statistics, (104), 39–48.
Abstract: Crime counts published by the Home Office for the Metropolitan Police
Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership areas have been collated
across the years 2003-2009. The crime counts over time have been
modelled taking into account the âmultilevelâ (years within areas)
nature of the data. The key variable of interest, as a predictor of
within-area change of crime, is the proportion of a Core Investment
Period of new Private Finance Initiative street lighting which had been
completed up to the given time point as a predictor of within area
change of crime. The final model gave a 95% confidence interval for
the multiplier by which the number of crimes is increased of (0.87,
1.11), for a fully implemented lighting programme, consistent with
Marchant, P. R. (2010). What is the contribution of street lighting to keeping us safe? An investigation into a policy. Radical Statistics, (102), 32–42.
Abstract: Lighting of roads is said to be of benefit beyond giving the ability to be
able to see in the dark. It is claimed for example that lighting reduces
crime and traffic accidents by a considerable amount and it is
therefore necessary to have it for these reasons. My view remains that
this claim lacks evidence of a sufficiently high standard to warrant
using public safety as an argument. On the other hand there are
reasons why having a lot of light at night might be a bad thing. This
work continues a previous talk and article for Radical Statistics
My initial interest in this area was sparked through my interest in
astronomy because light pollution makes it hard to appreciate the
wonders of the night sky. It seemed to me that the belief that lighting
reduces crime was questionableâ¦. I then embarked on investigating
the crime reduction claim and found it suspect, as detailed in the
2006 Radical Statistics article. (See also Marchant 2004, 2005, 2007,