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Jin-Joo Lee, S. - S. Y., Ho-Seok Kang, Dong-Hee Kim, Jin-Ho Nam, Hyun-Ji Kim, Hoon Kim. (2017). A Research on Visual Performance at Different Ages Depending on Color Temperature of Headlights. Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers, 31(8), 40–48.
Abstract: Under night-time driving conditions, both cones and rods in eyeâs retina simultaneously act to influence mesopic vision in two areas: central and peripheral visions. However, as people age, the amount of light received as well as the color temperature perceived by the human eyes also change. This research, through simulations and scaled down experiments with various headlight color temperatures and two levels of fixed brightness, deals with differences in ability to detect and identify obstacles by the subjects in their 20âs and 50âs.
According to the results obtained from the experiments on peripheral vision, subjects in their 20âs detected the obstacles more quickly at the combined color temperature of 3,000K+4,500K than at the single color temperature of 4,500K, and likewise at 3,000K+5,500K than at 5,500K; this tendency was significantly more noticeable for the subjects in their 50âs. As for the central vision, the results showed that there were no significant differences due to color temperature between the subjects in their 20âs and those in their 50âs. Moreover, the landolt ring experiment conducted under low luminance yielded higher percentage of correct answers at combined color temperatures.
Gutierrez-Escolar, A., Castillo-Martinez, A., Gomez-Pulido, J., Gutierrez-Martinez, J. - M., GonzÃ¡lez-Seco, E., & Stapic, Z. (2016). A review of energy efficiency label of street lighting systems. Energy Efficiency, , 1–18.
Abstract: There are very few countries that have provisions addressing the energy efficiency of the whole street lighting system, such as Spain or the Netherlands. Nevertheless, there is not an agreement about how energy efficiency must be assessed. The Spanish Government contemplates it in the Royal Decree 1890/2008 with the goal of improving energy savings and efficiency. However, this has not obtained the expected results. Nowadays, energy efficiency of this kind of systems is assessed using a label. In the case of Spain, this label only assesses one magnitude. The contributions of this paper are two evaluation systems (kiviat diagram and pie chart) which assess five magnitudes: lamps, energy efficiency index, light pollution, renewable energy contribution, and harness of the luminous flux using dimming. After that, a survey was done to study several subjects: (1) if citizens are aware about the efficiency of street lighting systems, (2) whether the sample of colors used in the label is adequate, and (3) if our proposed systems could replace the current evaluation system. Finally, the paper finishes with the conclusions of the survey.
Lockwood, R., Selwyn, T., & Morgan-Taylor, M. (2011). A review of local authority road lighting initiatives aimed at reducing costs, carbon emissions and light pollution. Report to Defra, UK, .
Abstract: This review of local authority road lighting initiatives was commissioned by Defraâs
Statutory Nuisance team in response to one of the recommendations contained in the
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollutionâs (RCEP) report âArtificial Light in the
Environmentâ. The RCEP report made reference to road lighting trials being undertaken by
local authorities in the UK that have been reducing or turning road lights off. This report
has been produced following a review of fifteen out of twenty five such initiatives identified
in England and Wales.
The overall aim of the review was to examine the local authority road lighting trials and
initiatives and draw out the lessons learnt.
Local authorities have implemented these initiatives in response to economic pressures
such as rising energy prices and environmental concerns about wasted energy and the
effects of carbon emissions and light pollution. Changes have been made to the way they
deliver public road lighting services by:
 switching selected road lights off;
 lighting roads for part of the night only;
 dimming the level of lighting during the early hours of the morning;
 reducing the âburningâ time of lamps in the evening and early morning; and / or
 using new and evolving technologies such as a central management system (CMS) or
light emitting diodes (LED).
These initiatives have the potential to provide a range of benefits including substantial
financial savings to local authorities, reduced carbon emissions and reduced light pollution.
However, the benefits need to be considered in the context of the important role that road
lighting plays in terms of assisting traffic safety and helping to reduce crime. Local
authorities have needed to carefully consider the impacts of proposed changes on these
issues and adopt appropriate management strategies prior to, during and post
implementation. These strategies have included the use of measures such as exemption
criteria, risk assessments and active engagement with stakeholders.
From this review, it is evident that there are a range of options and tools available to local
authorities as they consider how best to respond to the growing economic and
environmental pressures on the way they deliver their public road lighting services.
It is hoped that the information contained within this report may inform local authorities
which face similar challenges in the future, in identifying some of the key issues that may
affect their particular public road lighting service and assist in the process of implementing
changes appropriate to their circumstances.
Bruce-White, C., & Shardlow, M. (2011). A Review of the Impact of Artificial Light on Invertebrates. Buglife- The Invertebrate Conservation Trust., .
Kocifaj, M. (2015). A review of the theoretical and numerical approaches to modeling skyglow: iterative approach to RTE, MSOS, and two-stream approximation. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 181, 2–10.
Abstract: The study of diffuse light of a night sky is undergoing a renaissance due to the development of inexpensive high performance computers which can significantly reduce the time needed for accurate numerical simulations. Apart from targeted field campaigns, numerical modeling appears to be one of the most attractive and powerful approaches for predicting the diffuse light of a night sky. However, computer-aided simulation of night-sky radiances over any territory and under arbitrary conditions is a complex problem that is difficult to solve. This study addresses three concepts for modeling the artificial light propagation through a turbid stratified atmosphere. Specifically, these are two-stream approximation, iterative approach to Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) and Method of Successive Orders of Scattering (MSOS). The principles of the methods, their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed with respect to their implications for night-light modelling in different environments.